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Volume 9 Issue 6

S.No. Title & Authors Page No View

Title : Analysis of Psychometric Properties of English Language West African Senior School Certificate Examination in Borno State, Nigeria

Authors : Salihu Abdullahi GALLE, ALAKU Emmanuel Monica, Dr. SAMUEL John

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This study focused on the investigation of psychometric properties of English language West African Senior School Certificate Examination (WASSCE) in Borno State, Nigeria. Three research questions and two null hypotheses guided the study. The senior secondary students’ scripts who sat for the examination in 2020 constituted the population of the study. Probability proportionate sampling technique was used, particularly the cluster sampling for selection of the sample for the study. The marked answer scripts of the students were used as instruments for data collection. Classical test theory of measurement was used as a model for determining the difficulty, discrimination and distracter indices of the items. Kuder-Richardson K-R20 formula was used for determining the reliability coefficient of the items. The findings show that some items have moderate difficulty, discriminated well between the upper and lower ability groups of examinees. The findings further reveal that the examination has low content validity but has reliability coefficient of 0.73, which was moderate. It was concluded that the items were not properly generated and arranged. It is therefore recommended that WASSCE as a large scale assessment responsible for the awarding senior school certificate should improve English language items standard of the examination by involving measurement and measurement connoisseur in the examination items development process to enhance its psychometric properties to a tolerant level.


Title : Relationship between Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus-Primary Open Angle Glaucoma Comorbidity and Lifestyle Factors In Imo State, Nigeria

Authors : Eberendu Izuchukwu Francis, Justina Kwaskebe, Abanobi Okwuoma Chi, Ozims Stanley James

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Background: Comorbidity is a major health concern all over the world with a huge number of people diagnosed each day. This work studied the relationship between comorbidity of type 2 diabetes mellitus-primary open angle glaucoma(T2DM-POAG) and lifestyle factors(cigarette smoking, alcohol consumption and physical activity)in Imo state, South Eastern Nigeria with the aim of finding the protective factors for the comorbidity.

Methods: The study adopted a population based case-control study design. The subjects concerned in this study were 198 adults aged, 40 years and above, diagnosed of T2DM-POAG comorbidity(99 cases) and those without the comorbidity (99 controls). Variables taken into consideration were: physical activity, cigarette smoking and alcohol consumption. Data analyses were performed using IBM-SPSS statistics version 23 for data analyses. Microsoft Excel 2010 was used in drawing charts. Measured variables were summarized using descriptive statistics of mean and standard deviation. Graphical representations such as bar chart and pie charts were used to represent some of the results. Weighted test such as Wald test was used to test for significant factors in the model. The factors were considered significant at 5% level. Odds ratio were computed so as to measure the strength of the association between each of the exposures (the risk factors of interest) and the outcome. Confidence interval (CI) at 95% level was also calculated for each odds ratio.

Results: Lifestyle factors such as physical exercise, cigarette smoking, and alcohol intake were found significant in this study. In terms of frequency, doing exercise everyday was significant (p =0.005), as well as 3 times in a week (p=0.005). for those who engage in exercise for up to 3 time in a week, the odds for  T2DM –POAG comorbidity was found to be 81% lower (ie. 1-0.19)% compared to those that never do exercise(matched) (OR =0.19, 95% CI =0.059 -0.599). Similarly T2DM –POAG comorbidity risk was found to be 90% (ie 1-10)% lower on the subjects that practice exercise everyday compared to the ones that never do exercise(matched), not doing exercise showed lower risk of T2DM –POAG comorbidity (OR =0.10, 95% CI =0.200 -2.499).Exposure to cigarette smoking showed positive relationship with T2DM –POAG comorbidity. In this study, being exposed to cigarette smoking was found to be significantly associated with up to two times higher risk of T2DM –POAG comorbidity compared to non-exposure cigarette smoking (OR = 2.02,  95%CI= 1.075 – 3.814, p = 0.029).Higher risk of T2DM –POAG comorbidity was obtained for the study participants that consume alcohol (OR = 2.47, 95%CI= 1.191– 5.142). While the type of alcohol consumed was not a significant factor of T2DM –POAG comorbidity in this study (p >0.05), the frequency of alcohol consumption was found significant in such a way that taking alcohol sparingly attracts 52% (ie 1- 0.48) % lesser risk T2DM –POAG comorbidity than taking it often times (OR = 0.48, 95%CI= 0.256– 0.910).Similar to the univariate analysis, significant lifestyle factors found in the multivariate model include frequency of doing exercise (p =0.001), exposure to cigarette smoking (p =0.029), alcohol intake (p =0.002),and frequency of alcohol consumption (p =0.001). The adjusted odds ratio indicates that the odds for T2DM-POAG comorbidity were more on cigarette smoking by 2.6 time (95% CI =1.104 -6.237) compared to non-smokers, more on alcohol intake by 3.15 times 95% CI =1.541– 6.447) compared to non-alcohol consumers, but less on taking alcohol sparingly by 79% ( (i.e 1-0.21)%  95% CI =0.103 – 0.425) compared to taking alcohol often. Implications for the control of the comorbidity were discussed in line with the research questions.

Conclusion: As little information on T2DM-POAG comorbidity is available in Nigeria, this study contributes to better understanding of the protective factors for this comorbidity. Research work like this, tend to broaden the perspectives related to factors that play a vital role during the designing of preventive procedures and development of public health interventions regarding T2DM-POAG comorbidity. Protective factors of T2DM-POAG comorbidity, such as physical activity, cigarette smoking alcohol consumption which are modifiable, can be promoted to the population for better T2DM-POAG comorbidity prevention and control.


Title : Does Diabetics Support Groups Moderate the Relationship between Socio-economic Factors and Glycaemic Control among T2DM Patients in Nakuru Level V Hospital, Kenya?

Authors : Dr. Eugene Wanzetse Musungu

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The main investigation question of the study addressed was; does Diabetics Support Groups moderate the relationship between socio-economic factors and Glycaemic control among T2DM Patients in Nakuru Level V Hospital, Kenya? This study adopted a cross-sectional design using a quantitative method approach of individuals with T2DM between 20 and 79 years of age, having been diagnosed not later than January 2019 and on follow up outpatient visits at the Nakuru level V Hospital (NKLVH).  The target was 8346 patients with T2DM aged between 20 and 79 years, attending outpatient follow-up diabetes clinic at NKLVH with a confirmed diagnosis evident from the patients’ records. There were both exclusion and inclusion criteria. Primary data was then collected using semi-structured questionnaires administered to the respondents by the research assistants. The investigation used sampling formula by Yamane (1967) to arrive at 381 sample size of the patients. The 381 sample size was systematically and randomly selected from the NKLVH patients register, the numbers of those attending the diabetic clinic from Mondays to Fridays (attendance range of 35 to 55), and an average of 45 patients per day. Multiple regression models were used to analyze the moderating effect of social support group on the relationship between the socio-economic factors and Glycaemic control. Findings of the study established that the introduction of social support into the model as a moderator variables accelerated significant relationship between T2DM age of diagnosis, T2DM level of education, urban residence and T2DM patients who did not take alcohol and their glycaemic control among the sampled T2DM patients who attended Diabetics clinic in Nakuru Level V Hospital, Kenya. Social support did not have any moderating effect on socioeconomic factors as; T2DM gender, marital status, occupation and patients not smoking. The change in R2 by 12% in the regression model was therefore caused by social support moderator variable. The study recommends that Support Groups should be entrenched in T2DM Policy by the Ministry of Health since the investigation revealed a positive intercept between Socio-economic Factors and Glycaemic Control among T2DM Patients in Nakuru Level V Hospital, Kenya.


Title : An Investigation of the Impacts of Covid-19 Pandemic Spread on Nurses Fatigue: An Integrated Literature Review

Authors : Mahmoud Al-Masaeed, Mansour Al-Soud, ETAF ALKHLAIFAT, Rawan ALSABABHA, Khaldoun Ismail, Nezar Alhabashneh, Sohayb ABU TAPANJEH, Muhammad Alqudah, Irniza Binti Rasdi

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Study Aim: The integrated review evaluate the impacts of Covid-19 on nurses’ fatigue and well-being. The significance was to establish how the pandemic rise and spread have impacted nurses' fatigue prevalence and the practical mitigation strategies, both present and in the foreseeable future.

Research Methodology: An online search on three databases, Scopus, MEDLINE, and CINAHL, was conducted. An expansion strategy using the keywords fatigue, covid-19, and nurses was used. The inclusion criteria were publications in a nursing journals, the publication year 2020, and the availability or publications written in English language. The GRADE model helped drop the less relevant studies.

Findings and Analysis: A total of 47 articles were established. Through the integrated review exclusion criteria, 16 remained as applicable in the analysis. The findings led to the emergence of three key themes, namely (i) rising nursing fatigue levels, (ii) pre-disposition to mental fatigue for nurses with previous mental health complications, and (iii) the need for post-Covid-19 pandemic mental fatigue mitigation strategies. The integrated review implications are the consideration of nurses with pre-existing mental health issues against their deployment as front-line workers. Additionally, the need for long term mental fatigue mitigation strategies is emphasized.

Conclusion: The integrated literature review demonstrates the rising cases of nurses' fatigue amidst the Covid-19 pandemic. Although the pandemic has increased fatigue, the causative/trigger factors presided over the pandemic. The solution and mitigation strategies should be long term and focused on the post-pandemic period.


Title : Welch-Windowed Finite Impulse Response Filter for Electrocardiographic Signal Processing

Authors : V. O. Mmeremikwu, B. C. Dike

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Electrical signal (electrocardiogram ECG) that is produced in the heart can be detected and studied. It reveals the functionality of the heart. Like other bio-electrical signals, ECG is a non-stationary signal. ECG of a patient is obtained and compared with known ECG pattern, then the illness the patient suffers will be diagnosed and proper treatment commences. This may not be achieved if information the ECG carries is compromised with some other signals that may be recorded when ECG was being recorded. It is very essential that all artifacts that corrupted the ECG are removed before the signal gets to the physicians. 50Hz power line interference (PLI) and baseline wander (BW) are some of the noises that effect ECG. In this work, a Finite Impulse Response (FIR) filter using Welch Window is designed to remove 50Hz PLI and BW from a contaminated 7-cycle ECG signal. MATLAB periodogram is used to demonstrate the effectiveness of the filter.


Title : A View of the Adoption of Green Building Concept in Construction Projects in Federal University of Technology Owerri

Authors : Nkeleme Emmanuel Ifeanyichukwu, OkoyeUjunnwa Callista

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The construction industry is undergoing a green revolution where the idea of sustainable construction is fast gaining popularity. Green buildings are regarded as economical, resource efficient and environmentally friendly buildings compared with the convectional buildings. Therefore,considering the necessity of this new concept, it is expedient to view the reality of the adoption of green building concept in construction projects in Federal University of Technology Owerri. The research implored the combination of a quantitative and qualitative approach. The focus was on the buildings within FUTO with more concentration of new buildings constructed between 2012 and 2017. The primary data was obtained through observations and by administering questionnaires to individuals who are lecturers, familiar with the design, construction and management of the buildings. For quantitative method, parameters that define green construction with a range of variables from minimal to complete incorporation of the elements, determined the degree of conformity. The degree of adoption was statistically analyzed on the sampled buildings. The result from the research revealed among others that the condition that calls for Green Building elsewhere especially in the developed nation does exist in Nigeria, particularly in the construction project in FUTO, considering the fact that there is a substantial environmental damage from construction work and deviations from other green criteria. The research therefore call on relevant stakeholder to consider the concept of green building as a core criteria for any construction plan.


Title : Impact of Social Media Marketing on Consumer Buying Behaviour

Authors : Manawati Panwar, Dr. Swati Saxena

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There is a massive change in the method of communication in modern days. Social Media have become a convenient way to communicate among all age clusters. The Internet and particularly social media have modified the shoppers and marketers communicating medium. Social Media Marketing is very important and it is among the most successful tool and technique in the field of every type of advertising. The aim of this study is to find out the impact of Social media on buying behaviour decision of consumer .It is already known that how various marketing tools and techniques can be increased number of selling articles is the main aim of every businessman.

This research is about the study of the Buying process of consumer’s complex purchases, that keeps a special emphasis on how the process is being influenced by the use of social media. The data which has been used in the research is both primary and secondary type of data.

Results show that Social Media usage influences consumer satisfaction in the stages of information search and alternative evaluation with satisfaction getting amplified as the consumer moves along the process towards the final purchase decision and post-purchase evaluation. It can be concluded that there is an impact of Social media on Consumer Buying Behaviour. Specially youth are more influenced by the advertisement & other marketing tools used by the companies.