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Volume 9 Issue 5

S.No. Title & Authors Page No View
1

Title : Time Management Counselling Intervention for Undergraduate Students with Academic Stress

Authors : Obi O. P., Nicholas I. J.

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This study examined the effect of Time Management Counselling Intervention (TMCI) on the reduction of academic stress among undergraduate students. The study adopted quasi-experimental research design employing non randomized pretest, posttest control group design. Subjects were 32 undergraduate students from a university in Nigeria whose scores were high on the Student Academic Stress Indices (SASI) and low on Management of Academic Time Index (MATI). Student Academic Stress Indices and Management of Academic Time Index were developed by the researchers with reliability indices of 0.85 and 0.78, respectively and were considered suitable for the study. Those in the treatment group were exposed to time management counselling intervention (TMCI) in six sessions of approximately 45 minutes each. The control group was a waitlist group.  Data collected were analyzed using mean and standard deviation for the research questions and t-test for the null hypotheses. The results revealed that those in TMCI group had greater effect in reducing academic stress than the control at posttest and even at one-month follow-up.  Based on the findings, it was recommended among others that professional counsellors should expose students to time management counselling interventions especially those with high academic stress.

01-05
2

Title : Analysis of Climate Variables and Resource Conflict in Benue State, Nigeria

Authors : Abugu Nkechinyere Anthonia, Odele Muyiwa, Ogah TA, Yaro Ahmed Bello

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There is sparse literature on climate variables and resource conflictin Benue State, Nigeria despite numerous link of climate change and resource conflict. The objectives were to assess the trends in temperature and rainfall in Benue State from 2010-2019; assess the trends in resource conflict resource conflict between farmers and herdsmen and relate the climatic pattern with the pattern of resource conflict between farmers and herdsmen. Data on frequency of resource conflict were collected from the report of Nigeria Police Force, Nigeria watch data base and Newspapers. Data on climate variables were collected from NiMET office in Benue State.  Data were presented in tables and analyzed using statistical technique. Trend in climate variables and resource conflict were analyzed using range, mean, standard deviation, coefficient of variation, time series and regression while correlation coefficient and t test was used to relate climate variables to conflict occurrence. Result shows that the annual maximum temperature ranged from 30.52-37.06OC with mean of value 32.73 OC. The annual minimum temperature ranged from 19.98-23.01OC with mean value of 21.43 OC. The annual rainfall total ranged from 951.43-1818.70mm with mean value of 1358.88mm. The maximum temperature has a positive trend(Y=0.105x+ 32.73) while minimum temperature shows negative trend(Y= -0.054x+ 21.43). There were insignificant positive correlations between climate variables and occurrence of conflict.   Thus, Ho “there is no significant relationship between climate variables and occurrence of armed conflict is accepted at 95% significant level further study should be conducted on other casual factors of climate change.

06-13
3

Title : Effect of Organic Manure on the Growth and Yield of Fluted Pumpkin (Telfairia Occidentalis Hook. F.) in Unwana

Authors : Umekwe P.N., Eneruvie B.E., Okpani F.M.

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An experiment was conducted at teaching, demonstration and research (TDR) farm of Department of Horticulture and Landscape Technology, Akanu Ibiam Federal Polytechnic, Unwana-Afikpo during 2018 cropping season, to evaluate the effect of organic manure on the growth and yield of fluted pumpkin (Telfairia occidentalis Hook. F.) in Unwana. Three different organic manures (cow dung, poultry droppings and goat manure) were used. The treatments were laid in a Randomized Complete Block Design (RCBD) with three replications. Parameters measured were: vine length, number of leaves, number of vines, leaf area, stem girth, fresh weight of leaves and leaf yield. The result of the experiment showed significant differences (P=0.05) in vine length, number of leaves, number of vines, weight of leaves and leaf yield. The longest vine (156.40cm), highest number of leaves (36.93), highest number of vine (11.76), fresh weight of leaves (2.083kg) and leaf yield (94.80ton/ha) was recorded at poultry manure plot. Control plot obtained the least values in all parameters assessed. Therefore, based on the result of this finding, it is hereby recommended that the use of poultry manure should be adopted by farmers for profitable fluted pumpkin production in the study area.

14-17
4

Title : Effect of Sulphate Ion Concentration on the Extraction of Uranium (VI) From Buffered Solutions of 1-Phenyl-3-Methyl-4-Trichloroacetyl Pyrazolone-5

Authors : Victoria Bennett, Bamidele Martin Amos-Tautua, Ayasen Jermaine Kemeakegha, Nimibofa Ayawei

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Chloroform solutions of 1-Phenyl-3-Methyl-4-Trichloroacetylpyrazolone-5 (HTCP) for the extraction of Uranium (VI) from various buffered solutions containing different sulphate ion concentrations was investigated. Colorimetric method was used to determine Uranium (VI) concentrations in aqueous media. Uranium (VI) was not extracted between pH 0 – 2 and it was attributed to the formation of unextractablesulphateuranyl (UO2)SO4 complex. Optimum extraction of U(VI) of 88.70 % at pH 3.21 for solutions containing 0.01 M SO42-,  76.84 % at pH 3.4 for solutions containing 0.1 M SO42- and 41.24 % at pH 3.48 for solutions containing 1 M SO42- was recorded. An increase in sulphate ion concentration decreased the optimum extraction of U(VI) from chloroform solutions of 1-Phenyl-3-Methyl-4-Trichloroacetylpyrazolone-5, thus sulphate ion concentration in buffered solutions had a masking effect on the extraction of U(VI). An adduct complex of the metal characterized as UO2(TCP) was extracted with a metal ratio of 1:1

18-22
5

Title : Effect of Debit Cards on Financial Performance of Listed Commercial Banks in Kenya

Authors : Tom Oboke Ndhine, Dr. Patrick Kibati, Dr. Bowen C. Jeptepkeny

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Financial institutions have been in the process of significant transformation. Despite this transformation, even though there’s a richness of information on the nature and scope of electronic banking, via debit card, there is a scarcity of evidence about its contribution among banks. The changing dynamics of banking means that banks’ performance is no longer solely dependent on sales. The adoption of debit card by commercial banks is expected to have an effect on their financial performance asconsumers assess the safety of payment instruments and payment choices.The study was grounded on the theory of information production and contemporary banking theory, Innovation diffusion theory. The study adopted descriptive research design utilizing panel data covering the period from 2009-2019.The population comprised of eleven listed commercial banks operating in Kenya. This study primarily adopted the use of secondary data to collect information from published annual financial statements of the listed commercial banks. Data analysis was done using SPSS, while data was analyzed using descriptive and inferential statistics obtained from panel linear regression analysis. Regression statistics was used to determine the significance of the relationship between variables. The results showed that increased in debit card usage enhance the profitability of banking industry in form of ROA over the period of 2009 to 2019 quarterly. The results also showed that increased usage of debit cards significantly reduced transaction costs and enhanced convenience among credit and debit card users. This thus attracted prospective customers leading to increased sales and profitability. Thestudy recommended that commercial banks should reduce transaction costs of payment channels to increase adoption. This will have a positive impact on the financial performance commercial banks in the country. The study also recommends that commercial banks should understand the mechanism of safety perception and payment behavior which might further help policymakers and central bankers preserve consumers’ confidence in the safety of the payment system.

 

23-28
6

Title : Effectiveness of Police Security Measures in Addressing Violent Extremism in Mombasa County, Kenya

Authors : Martin Otieno Omumbo

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Purpose: The purpose of the study was to evaluate the effectiveness of security measures by the police in addressing violent extremism in Mombasa County, Kenya

Methodology: The study adopted both quantitative and qualitative method through application of questionnaires and personal interviews. The targeted population was 1693 comprising of police officers, prisons officers, and religious and civil society leaders. A sample of 10% was picked from the group using simple random, snowballing and purposive sampling. The data was analyzed through thematic review of the literature gathered and descriptive frequencies, pie charts and Bar graphs using Statistical Program for Social Sciences (SPSS). The findings were presented in a scientific report for examination.

Findings: Physical security measures were only suitable for short term preventions whereas non-physical measures provided better solutions to violent extremism. Radicalization by radical clerics was established to the main driver to violent extremism. The authorities need the local communities in the fight against violent extremism through counter narratives and rehabilitation programs. Inadequate resources and training were major challenges to the police.

Unique contribution to theory, practice and policy: The study is grounded on the Program theory by Chen (1990). The key idea of the theory is the influence of a program on the level of outcomes. The study endorsed the application of various measures against terrorism. It recommended the hardening of soft targets such as crowded public places through security guard frisks, walk through security scanners, surveillance cameras and improved access controls. The police and members of the public should partner more in control of violent extremism. The major stakeholders including but not limited to County governments, community leaders, interior ministry in charge of security, ministry of finance, the Kenya National Police Service and the National Counter Terrorism Centre to work together build police capacity to manage violent extremism.

29-37
7

Title : Assessment of the Implementation of the Environmental Management Plan of the Gurara Multi-Purpose Dam in Kaduna State Nigeria

Authors : Ahmed Yero Bello, T. A Ogah, Magaji JI, Abugu N.A

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Despite the credibility of EIA in predicting and mitigating environmental impact of development projects like dam, Gurara dam has continues to cause environmental degradation. This study assessed the implementation of the Environmental Management Plan (EMP) of the Gurara Dam in Kaduna State Nigeria. The objectives of the study are to assess the implementation of mitigation measures for: air quality deterioration; noise and vibration and changes in hydrological patterns and water quality.To achieve the objectives, the EIA report of Gurara Multipurpose Dam Project was reviewed to identify the predicted impact andmitigationmeasures in the EIA report. Then field survey was conducted to evaluate the implementation using questionnaire survey, observation, interview, and focus   group discussion. This study selected five hundred (500) respondents for household questionnaire administration and twenty-three participants for Focused Group Discussion and interview using purposive, systematic and panel sampling techniques.  Data collected were analsyed using descriptive statistics frequency distribution tables, percentage, mean standard deviation and Coefficient of Variation.Results showed that three hundred and twenty-nine (329) respondents representing 65.8% agreed that the enlisted mitigation measures to prevent air pollution were implemented; two hundred and eight respondents representing 41.65% agreed that the enlisted mitigation measures to prevent noise and vibration were implemented and that one hundred and seventy-six respondents representing 35.1% agreed that the enlisted mitigation measures to prevent changes in hydrological patterns and water quality were implemented. It was concluded that the implementation of the outlined mitigation measures in the Gurara dam EIA report fall short of the arrangement in the Environmental Management Plan. It was recommended among other things that stakeholders should play their roles properly to ensure that mitigation measures in the Gurara are well implemented.

38-43
8

Title : Factors Influencing ICT Integration in Resource Planning In Secondary Schools in Mashuuru District, Kajiado County, Kenya

Authors : Asibah Everlyne M Kerubo, Dr Rose Obae, Ferdinand Mbeche, Joseph Ndung'u Karanja

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This study sought to investigate factors influencing ICT integration in resource planning in secondary schools in Mashuuru district, Kajiado County. Specifically, the study sought to determine the influence of teachers’ perception and establish the influence of principals’ age, all in the integration of ICT in resource planning in secondary schools. The study employed descriptive survey design with both qualitative and quantitative approaches targeting 13 secondary schools, 13 school principals and 226 teachers. A sample of 88 respondents was randomly selected to participate in the study, while 13 principals were purposefully selected and interviewed for argumentation purposes of the study findings. From the findings it revealed that the respondents had moderate positive perception towards the ICT integration in resource planning in schools. Teachers perceived that ICT saves time, helps them accomplish many tasks within a short time, eases lesson preparation, teachers generally like it, is efficient in producing reports, it is not hectic nor complicated to use and helps them accomplish much within a short times with a mean level of 3.28, 3.23,3.22, 3.11, 3.08, 2.82 and 2.80 respectively. The average mean was 3.08 implying a moderate level of positive perception among the teachers on the use of ICT in the resource planning of the school. The regression model’s adjusted R-squared was 0.043 , in which explains (4.3%) of the teachers perception factor influencing integration of ICT in resource planning. The regression model’s adjusted R- squared was 21.9 as which explains (21.9%) of the resource planning as influenced by the age of the schools principals as an independent variable. This therefore, explains (21.9%) of the Principals’ age factor affecting ICT integration in resource planning. Hence, the remaining (36.9%) should be explained by other factors not captured in this study. The study concluded that influence of teachers’ perception on ICT integration in resource planning and Principals’ age greatly influence the integration of ICT in resource planning in secondary schools. It was concluded that teachers, school managers, the education officials and the government should work hand in hand to make sure that ICT infrastructure are availed and the staff gets adequate training in order to enhance ICT integration in resource planning in secondary schools.

44-52
9

Title : Effect of Strategic Leadership on Organizational Performance of Family Owned Businesses in Nakuru East Sub County, Kenya

Authors : Violah Jepkemboi Ronoh, John Kipkorir Tanui

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Family owned businesses play a crucial role in the economy through employment creation, income generation and also in accumulation of wealth. However, the family owned businesses face performance challenges such as poor employee performance leading to low profit margins or losses, employee payment challenges and marketing challenges. The study seeks to examine the effect of strategic leadership on performance of family owned businesses in Nakuru East Sub County, Kenya. The objectives of the study included; To examine the effect of organizational culture on the performance of family owned businesses in Nakuru East Sub County, Kenya, and To assess the effect of corporate governance on the performance of family owned businesses in Nakuru East Sub County, Kenya. The study used descriptive research design and target businesses owned by families within Nakuru East Sub County.  The study targeted the population of 2,600 family businesses operating within Nakuru East Sub County. The study used stratified random sampling to arrive at the sample size desired in the study. The sample size was 96 respondents.  From the findings the study concluded that organizational culture had a statistically significant positive correlation with business performance. In addition the study concluded that there was a statistically significant positive correlational relationship between corporate governance and business performance. From the conclusion  the study recommended that resources management should be emphasized on in order to lead to improved business performance of the family businesses. The study thus recommended that the aspects should be emphasized on by the management.

53-61
10

Title : Use of Electronic Resources by Postgraduate Students during Covid-19 Pandemic: Case of Masinde Muliro University of Science and Technology, In Kenya

Authors : Dr. Umulkher Ali Abdillahi

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The continuous evolution of telecommunications, electronics and computer sciences has culminated into the inception of virtual worlds.The purpose of this research paper is to determine the opportunities and challenges facing postgraduate students as they  utilize e-resources during COVID-19 pandemic at Masinde Muliro University of Science and Technology. Desk top research through review of different studies was done and an online survey conducted using Google forms; this methodology was adopted to elicit the required information. A sample of 18 postgraduate students at Masinde Muliro University of Science and Technology were selected from sampled schools. The findings show thatelectronic resources provide benefits for learning that are impossible physically, virtual libraries are accessible at one’s convenience and everywhere as long there is reliable network connectivity. A great deal of challenges is encountered in the successful execution of electronic resources by institutions of higher learning in strengthening postgraduate learning needs. Electronic resources are now at the heart of Universities especially during the COVID-19 pandemic and are therefore required to play a crucial role in the learning undertakings and most importantly in supporting e-learning. The practical indications of this research paper are to emphasize the adaptation of e-resources technologies and collaboration among different academic Faculties and Departments in providing instruction to the postgraduate students.

62-66
11

Title : Gender Equity in Teaching Profession

Authors : Dr. Baba Babo, Bintu Mustapha

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There seem to be a negative perception on women education which resulted to short of women participation in all professions including teaching profession. Thus, the paper in an attempt to review issues on gender equity in teaching profession discusses the conceptual analysis, concept of gender equity, concept of teaching profession, gender related discrimination in teaching, gender equity in teaching profession, feminization of teaching profession by United Nation, gender issue and professions in Nigeria and concluded that; gender disparity in education and teaching profession is global issue that is bedevilling both the developed and the developing countries. And proportion of female teachers presented by United Nation where Europe, North America and South America has the proportion of 42.30%, 46.00% and 41.00%% female teachers at the tertiary level respectively. It is also recommended that: teaching profession in Nigeria should be given self regulation to be extremely free and independent from government control; there is still the need for global enlightenment on issues regards to girl-child education and their acceptability to patronize the teaching profession globally; and reasonable amount should be paid as teachers’ salary in order to encourage the recognition and active participation of all genders in to the teaching profession. The paper will be of great important to Teachers’ Registration Council (TRC), National University Commission (NUC), National Commission for Colleges of Education (NCCE), National Teachers’ Institute (NTI) by showing need for them to put more effort in producing women teachers to the Nigerian society.

67-70
12

Title : Relationship between Tests Anxiety and Students Academic Achievement in Educational Measurement and Evaluation in Usmanu-Danfodiyo University Sokoto State, Nigeria

Authors : Salihu Abdullahi GALLE, ATIKU Caleb Sarki, BALA Mohammed Aisha

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The focused of this study was to explore the relationship between tests anxiety and students academic achievement in educational measurement and evaluation in Usmanu-Danfodiyo University Sokoto State, Nigeria. Four research questions and one hypothesis guided the study. A sample of 520 students was randomly selected from thirteen different departments in faculty of education. The instrument contained 20 items ‘‘Test Anxiety Inventory (TAI) developed by Spielberger for data collection. Data were analyses using Pearson correlation, multivariate statistics and regression. It was found that a significant negative relationship exists between test anxiety scores and students’ academic achievement scores, which a cognitive factor (worry) contributes highly in test anxiety than affective factors (emotional). Further results reveal a significant effect of male and female students on sub-scales test anxiety and academic achievement scores in educational measurement and evaluation. Therefore, it was concluded that test anxiety is one of the major treats responsible for students’ poor achievement and low performance but it can be controlled educating students on how to handle factors responsible for test anxiety at the university.

71-78
13

Title : Employee Engagement and Organizational Survival

Authors : C.S. Biriowu, J.E. Chikwe

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Talented and motivated employees are vital in the survival of any organization. In a turbulence and competitive environment, employee engagement has been shown to be the source of competitive advantage. The paper examined the association of employee engagement and organizational survival, with organizational culture as the moderating variable. The paper is a theoretical review of extant literature on employee engagement, organizational culture and organizational survival. To achieve its objectives, the paper adopted teamwork, empowerment and participation as the dimensions of employee engagement while innovativeness, adaptability and situation awareness were chosen as the measures of organizational survival. The finding of paper showed that when employees were given the power to participate in the decision making, they feel valued, trusted and will go beyond the demands of the job and ensure that organizationalgoals are accomplished. However, the paper also found that effective leadership, communication, reward, recognition and atmosphere of fairness among others are the drivers of engagement. The paper concluded that employee engagement predicts organizational survival, whileorganizational culture influences both variables. The paper recommended that managers should keep their employees engaged in order to reduce cost of recruiting new employees for the same job. In addition, since organizational culture influencesemployee engagement, management of organizations should ensure that employee engagement is crafted into their strategic intent in order to have engaged employees that will help the organization achieve its goals. Lastly, organization can utilize the exit interview with departing employees to determine the level of engagement in the organization if properly handled.

 

79-92
14

Title : Technology Enhanced Learning in Teaching Foundation Skills for Literacy and Numeracy among Vulnerable Children in the North Eastern Parts of Adamawa State

Authors : Bitrus Ishaya, Ezekiel K. Etienne

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The term Technology-enhanced learning (TEL) is concerned with using technologies to support learning whether in school, workplace or at home through the use of instructional materials like smart boards, projectors, educational Ipad/tablets etc. This research is an attempt to find out the impact of how TEL is deployed in teaching the vulnerable children in boko haram ravaged communities in the north east. The survey method was used in conducting the research and the data consists of some purposively selected schools in the north east to identify the truth or otherwise in the deployment of TEL in teaching the vulnerable children. The study also exposes the complexity arising from systemic alienation, disempowerment and hardship facing the IDPs and public schools in Northeastern Nigeria culminating into the dynamic effects on the educational deprivation of the Nigerian children. Based on the findings, recommendations were proffered and prominent among them include the need for Government as a matter of urgency provide appropriate equipment and materials needed for effective TEL programs in all the Federating units. Both federal and state ministries of education, human resources and agencies interested in children education should be made to initiate programs aimed at promoting TEL activities in all schools.

93-99
15

Title : Information Trend on Kola Production and the Need for Kola Rehabilitation Techniques in Nigeria

Authors : Agbebaku E. E.O., Ogundeji B. A., Baba Nitsa M., Ogunjobi T. E., Olorunmota R. T., Awodumila D. J., Famuyiwa B.S., Dada A.O., Mustopha F.B

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The kola industry had in the 60s and 70s contributed greatly to Nigeria’s GDP. The discovery of oil in the country had unfortunately led to the neglect of agriculture. Study was carried out in respect of information trend on kola production between 2007 and 2016, with the aim of evaluating the causes of decline and fluctuation in kola production. The results show no consistence with regards to kola production in terms of year and countries quarterly productions. Average kola production ranges between (100,000) in 2007 to (144,900) in 2010. Nigeria was the highest kola producer with about (143,829) tonnes while Sierra Leone produced (8,128) tonnes. This trend has adverse effect on Nigeria kola industry; hence something needed to be done to reduce the domination of kola plantations by old trees of  low yield and/or prone to pests and diseases infestation through adoption of rehabilitation techniques. It has become evident that these techniques could only be achieved through effective information dissemination and farmers’ group participatory approach.

100-106
16

Title : Necessary Employability Skills Required Of Automotive Electrical System Technicians in Kebbi and Sokoto States, Nigeria

Authors : Shamsuddeen Bala Illo

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The study was conducted with the aim of identifying the skills appreciated by employers for the employment of automotive electrical system technicians in Sokoto and Kebbi states in North Western Nigeria. It specifically determined the generally required employability skills and rankings in terms of their perceived importance by participants. To achieve this, two (2) research questions, as well as one null hypothesis was formulated and tested at 0.05 level of significance, as a guide to the study. Appropriate answers were sought through descriptive survey design which involved a population made up of automotive electrical/electronic technicians, automotive electrical/electronic teachers, and automotive electrical/electronic lecturers in some institutions in the targeted states. A structured questionnaire was used to generate data, which was analysed based on frequency count, mean, and analysis of variance. The findings of the study suggested that all the identified employability skills were necessary, but with different levels of importance. Specifically, the study discovered that integrity/honesty was considered the most necessary skill, while competency in planning was regarded as the least required skill by the respondents. The study, therefore, recommended that the curriculum for technical colleges and vocational centres, should include graduate employability skills and attributes as well as strong synergy between employers, technical education training providers, educators and all other stakeholders in technical education, in order to enshrine, sustain and develop the necessary employability skills training in to the technical education program.

107-112
17

Title : Constuction of A Two Pot Forced Air Charcoal Stovepowered by 6V Battery

Authors : Sachia Simon Bemsen

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The two-pot forced air charcoal stove was constructed as a better replacement to the traditional firewood stoves and many others. The smoke from the burning firewood contains toxic that are detrimental to our health causing eye, lung and heart ailments and increasing the risk of strokes. However, the two-pot forced air stove was constructed, tested and found to ensure almost complete combustion of charcoal producing large quantity of heat energy that we use to cook our meals, and carbon iv oxide which is used by green plant in the process of photosynthesis. In this way, the family members are shielded from the negative consequences of smoke and their meals cooked efficiently, saving time. The stove components include the metal rod unit, the cylinder unit, the mod unit, the blade unit, the blade enclosure unit, the battery unit and the resistance box. The result from the device shows that 300g of beans were well cooked in 24 minutes with only 150g of charcoal other achievements were also observed and recorded

113-116
18

Title : Construction of a Prototype Vertical Axis Wind Turbine Phone Charger Using Permanent Magnet Alternator

Authors : Ormin Bundega Joseph, Sachia Simon Bemsen

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In this project, a prototype Savonius vertical axis wind turbine potential as a means of energy generation in charging Nickel-Metal phone batteries was considered. The wind turbine was designed and constructed using permanent magnet alternator. It was tested using a blower and a digital multimeter. The wind turbine was able to produce power in the range of 0.00134-4.19mW and a maximum voltage output of 1.25V at the highest blower speed. It can equally work efficiently when installed or placed in high wind speed sites.

117-121
19

Title : Industrial Potential and the Suitability of Emu-Agbaja, Oworo Clay for the Production of Refractory Bricks

Authors : KOLADE JONES OLATUNJI, KOLADE EUNICE IDOWU, SALAWU ADINOYI DAHIRU, YAKUBU Habbeb Mohammed

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Five brick samples of different line blends were made and fired at a temperature of 13000C. All the Five samples survived firing with no single one crumbling. The brick samples gave the following limits of results. Total shrinkage: - 6.52%, - 8.69%, Effective moisture content: - 22.22%, - 29.27%, Modulus of rupture: – 1.25kgf/cm2 - 2.20kgf/cm2. Apparent Density: 3.413g/cm2 - %, 69.26g/cm2. Bulk density: 1.080g/cm3.  - 1.414g/cm3, Drying Shrinkage: - 1.30%, - 3.47%, Fired shrinkage: - 3.15%, - 6.67%, Apparent Porosity: 58.57%, - 79.27%, Water Absorption Test: 41.41 %, - 85.10%, the results showed that almost the entire brick samples had good insulating characteristics.

122-129
20

Title : Analysis of Differential Item Functions of Mathematical-Economics Item Structured Test Forms Based on Item Difficulty Levels in Colleges of Education, Enugu State, Nigeria

Authors : Salihu Abdullahi GALLE, GBANDE Samson Samuel Kale, IBRAHIM Suleiman Agahu

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The study of Mathematical-economics is paramount to all the Economics students in Nigerian tertiary institutions in the enhancement of growth and nation development. In actualizing the dream goal of the subject two modern theories were anchored thus: Classical Test Theory (CTT) and Item Response Theory (IRT) to evaluate the study. Hence, the researchers evaluated differential item functions of Mathematical-economics item structured test forms (easy-to-hard, hard-to-easy and random versions) based on item difficulty levels in colleges of education, Enugu State, Nigeria. Three research questions guided the study and co-relational research design was adopted. The population of study consisted of all 6420 Federal, State, and Private   NCE 1 Economics students 2018-2019 academic season and a simple random sample of 610 NCE1 Economics students were selected for the study. Mathematical-Economics Achievement Test (MEAT) was used for data collection. MEAT was validated which yielded 0.86 validity index and 0.84 reliability index. Data were analyzed using factor analysis (TID, MH, LR CTT-based andX2 and Raju’s IRT-based). The result reveals that examinees gain advantages of easy-to-hard than hard-easy or even a random version test forms and differential item structured correct responses to the items for examinees with the same ability levels. It was recommended that economics lecturers in colleges of education should use easy-to-hard test form to evaluate examinees considering with psychometric functions of evaluation for valid decisions.

130-139
21

Title : Analysis of ISO/IEC 27001 to Encourage its Adoption in Nigerian Businesses

Authors : Heman Awang Mangut, Damuut Peter Luhutyit, Aristarkus Datukuk Kalamba, Palang Mangut

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140-147
22

Title : Waste Disposal and Management in Awka Capital Territory, Telescoping the Roles of Anambra State Environmental Protection Agency (Ansepa) 2012 - 2019

Authors : Nwakoby Nkiru Peace, Okoye Nwamaka Jannefrancic, Chukwurah Daniel Chi Junior

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Rapid and uncontrolled urbanization has often been accomplished by many environmental problems and challenges. The conflicts of development needs and environmental resources if not properly addressed often result to severe damage to the natural environment. Refuse disposal and management across the globe is a serious phenomenon that needs serious attention by various governmental agencies, non-governmental agencies, communities and individuals since those dumps and ugly sites cause lots of damages, discomforts and health hazards to the people. System theory and simple survey research design with a population size of four hundred and fifty seven thousand, eight hundred and thirty-six (457,836) people from three local governments viz;  Awka South, Dunukofia and Orumba North was employed. Findings reveal that rapid and uncontrolled urbanization is the major causes of environmental development and advised for strictly adherence to proper urban planning and policy.       

147-152
23

Title : Covid 19 and Teacher Preparedness Perception; Challenges and Opportunities, Among Teachers of Secondary Schools in Baringo County, Kenya

Authors : Wilson Kiptala, John Kipruto

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The COVID-19 crisis has left more than 1.5 billion children out of school with the length of school closures uncertain. The purpose of the study was to investigate COVID-19 and teacher preparedness perception; challenges and opportunities, among secondary school teachers in Baringo County, Kenya. The objectives of the study were to: Explore the perceptions of teachers on their preparedness for immediate response, examine the perceptions of teachers on their preparedness on mid-term response and investigate the perceptions of teachers on their preparedness on the long term response to challenges and opportunities posed by COVID 19 in Baringo County, Kenya. The study was guided by the perception theory of Kurt Lewin as espoused by smith.The research method was qualitative. The research design was phenomenology.  Teacherswere interviewed and Focus group discussions conducted. The data was thematically analyzed. The study findings indicated that there is overburden of learning new tools (online) and teaching at the same time, repositioning of flexible home-based learning and curriculum review to integrate technology education in teaching and learning. The study recommends that there is need to invest in mental health, preparation of hybrid models to enhance curriculum delivery and provision of online guidance and counseling.

153-160
24

Title : Using Integrating Factor Method to Solve Some Types of Fractional Differential Equations

Authors : Chii-Huei Yu

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This paper uses integrating factor method, product rule and chain rule for fractional derivatives to find the general solutions of some types of first order fractional differential equations, regarding Jumarie’s modified Riemann-Liouville (R-L) fractional derivative. Moreover, an example is proposed to illustrate our result.

161-164
25

Title : Design Science Framework for Individual Innovation Self-Learning

Authors : Wangai Njoroge Mambo

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Abstract :

The study reviewed key elements for successful innovation self-learning using widely available mobile phone technologies as an entry point. Identified elements were integrated into design science research framework (DSRF). Every African owns or has access to a mobile phone making it a candidate platform that can be used most people to start learning technology innovation. Mobile phones use a hierarchical abstraction structure that hides complexity at multiple levels to simplify mobile phone use by different types of users. At lowest user level most complexity is hidden making it easy for almost everyone to use. The study postulates that group  of university and  tertiary institution students and people, who possess basic mobile phone technology understanding as one that can start innovation self-learning with potential to diffuse to masses. TRIZ is a widely used innovation theory consisting of several methods. It originated in science and engineering, and has been moving to other disciplines. TRIZ inventive principles method is used in this study. Some TRIZ principles at most basic level can be understood by everyone. However deep understanding of how technology was invented requires substantial domain knowledge and expertise. For example to understand how Ugali or Fufu the main African staple food was invented, a food science expert would use food science and technology knowledge. To the common person understanding would be basic using minimal knowledge. Incremental innovation self-learning approach was designed that allows learners to discover how technologies were invented using TRIZ inventive principles by adapting DSRF.  Mobile phone hardware and operating system is used as a window to start learning innovation that acts as a bridge for learner to latter move to learning and possibly innovating in area of interest.

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