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Volume 9 Issue 1

S.No. Title & Authors Page No View
1

Title : Active Disturbance Rejection Control of a DC Motor

Authors : Ihechiluru Okoro

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Preceding conventional model-based control techniques applied to the DC motor has not been effective in achieving reference tracking, canceling parametric uncertainties and rejecting external disturbances. Hence, this paper presents a two-degree-of-freedom (2DOF) active disturbance rejection control (ADRC) structure for the speed control of the separately-excited DC motor, where good set-point tracking and disturbance rejection are both achieved. Its aim is fundamentally built on the prospect of online estimating the unknown disturbance inputs affecting the DC motor by means of suitable observers and proceeding to canceling them via an appropriate feedback control law, using the gathered disturbance estimate. An extended state observer (ESO) in real-time estimates the general disturbance, consisting of the external disturbance and internal uncertainties, and feeds it back in the control loop thus canceling them out. While the state controller provides usual feedback control. The proposed controller features a revolutionary departure from the model-based feedback control paradigm, as it does not require a precise but coarse model of the motor to design a suitable controller.Computer simulations are presented to validate the effectiveness of the proposed control scheme.

01-05
2

Title : Genotoxicity of Hairdressing Salon Effluent Using Allium cepa

Authors : Okereke J. N., Dike Ijere N., Ukaoma A.A., Ezejiofor T.I.N

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Genotoxicity of hairdressing salon effluent using Allium cepa was carried out using different concentrations of 12.5%, 25%, 50% and 100% of hairdressing salon effluent obtain from different outlets. The presence and concentrations of some heavy metals such as lead, Mercury, Zinc, Cadmium and Arsenic in the effluent were determined using Atomic Absorption Spectrophotometer (AAS). Chromosomal aberration assays were used to determine the mitotic index and chromosome aberration rate. There was an increase in the mitotic inhibition as the concentration increased whereas there was a decrease in the mitotic index, indicative of an inverse relationship shared by the two properties. The effluent induced chromosomal aberrations in the meristematic cells of the A. cepa root tip, and laggards were the most frequently recorded aberrations induced. Morphological abnormalities were also recorded in the roots of the Allium cepa. The genotoxic effects of hairdressing salon effluent on Allium cepa indicates that it contains toxic substances which may constitute environmental risks particularly on soils and plant crops planted near hairdressing salon facilities.

06-12
3

Title : Comparative Analysis of Natural Radionuclide Contents and Hazards associated with selected locally made and Imported Tiles

Authors : Akinlade Bidemi I., Pemi Stephen G.

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Introduction: Ceramics tiles have been used for building decoration in Nigeria. However, the glazing materials and other chemical additives in their production could increase their radionuclides. Analysis of radionuclides: Uranium-238 (238U), Thorium-232 (232Th) and Potassium-40 (40K) in commonly used tiles is hereby presented.

Materials and Methods: Radionuclides in 16 different samples of tiles, 10 made in Nigeria (LMT) and 6 imported (IT), were analysed using Canberra NaI(Tl) Gamma ray detector at the Secondary Standard Dosimetry Laboratory, National Institute of Radiation Protection and Research, Ibadan, Nigeria. Radiological hazard indices namely, Radium Equivalent Activity (Raeq), External Hazard (Hex), Internal Hazard Hin), Gamma Index(Iγ), Alpha Index(Iα), Absorbed Dose Rate (DR), Annual Effective Dose (AED), and Excess Lifetime Cancer Risk (ELCR), associated with each sample were thereafter calculated. Results were compared with the international recommended limit (IRL).

Results: The mean concentration (Bq/kg) of 238U, 232Th and 40K obtained from LMT were 18.46±10.46, 138.55±31.27 and 478.95±39.09 while that from IT were 26.87±16.34, 108.35±37.20 and 796.23±227.52 respectively. The mean values of Raeq, Hex, Hin, Iγ, Iα, DR, AED and ELCR obtained from LMT and IT were 253.46 and 243.12(Bq/kg);  0.68 and 0.66; 0.73 and 0.73; 0.91 and 0.90; 0.09 and 0.13; 115.50 and 115.90(nGy/h); 0.57 and 0.57(mSv/year);  and 1.98 and 1.99(x 10-3) respectively.

Conclusion: It was observed that Raeq and AED obtained from both LMT and IT selected for this study were less than IRL of 370 Bq/kg and 1 mSv/year respectively. Tiles of these samples are considered safe for building decoration.

 

13-20
4

Title : Libraries in the Electronic Era: An Evaluation of the Experiences of Users and Professionals with E-Learning in Academic Libraries

Authors : Hudron K. Kari, Onah Ebere Edith

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Changes and advancements in information and communication technologies have significantly affected almost every sphere of human existence. The library has also been affected by these changes, evidence of which is the emergence of e-learning platforms as part of library services. However, the experiences  of both users and library professionals regarding e-learning has not received significant attention in literature. In this study, the researcher attempted to fill this gap through a survey of 220 library users and 220 library professionals.  A total of six alternate hypotheses were tested and rejected. Specifically, the researcher found, among others that e-learning are essential in 21st century library services. It was also found that e-learning promote the utilization of academic library services as well correlate user satisfaction with library services.  The implications of these results on library practice has been examined.

21-25
5

Title : Digital Transformation of Information and its Impact on Libraries

Authors : Hudron K. Kari

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The world has practically gone digital as almost everything has moved from analogue to digital. There is also an increasing appetite for digital data among people. Academic libraries of the 21st century operate   in such a digital environment. However, studies examining the impact of digital transformations on libraries have remained largely scarce. In this study, the researcher  examined the impact of digital transformation on libraries. The survey research design was used for the study. A total of 240 library users and 240 library professionals took part in the study. The questionnaire was used  as the instrument for data collection. The results showed that all the  five assumptions tested  in the study were supported. In particular, the researcher found that digital transformation of  information have significantly  impacted libraries in the areas of service delivery, service utilization, library management,  library materials format and library patronage. Based on these results, the researcher recommends, among others, that libraries should continue to monitor and respond to changes that digital transformation trigger.

26-30
6

Title : The Effect of Nasarawa Central Abattoir Effluent on the Receiving River, Nasarawa, Nasarawa State, Nigeria.

Authors : Alabi J.O., Sanni J.E., Ashiru M.A., Yusuf M.J., Adeoye A.S.

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The impact of effluent from the Nasarawa Central Abattoir (NCA) on the receiving body of water was verified using parameters from Physico-Chemical and microbiological qualities of water. The results obtained from the investigations carried out on the samples from segment of the adjoining river which directly received the effluent discharged from the abattoir were quite revealing. Samples of water were collected at distances 0 m (point of discharge), 5 m, 10 m, and 15 m from the source of effluent discharged. The fifth sample was obtained 73 m upstream of the point of effluent discharged to furnish information on ambient conditions of the river prior to pollution. The drop in Dissolved Oxygen (DO) level of the river from an ambient value of 7.16 mg/L to 6.71 mg/L at the point of discharge was indicative of pollution with increased Total Solid (TS) from 1039 mg/L to 1125 mg/L. Findings also showed that the various water samples collected were all contaminated with Escherichia coli (E. coli) and other enteric bacteria. The presence of coliform staphylococcus aureus highlighted the activity of micro-organisms which are associated with water borne diseases. The receiving river was confirmed polluted by the effluents discharged into it. Invariably, this constitutes hazards to the environment and the unsuspecting local dwellers that used the water from the river for domestic, recreation, and food production.

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7

Title : Combating Corruption in Nigeria Tertiary Institutions: Call for Change

Authors : Emmanuel N. Ogu O.P, Ebere Bosco Amakwe HFSN

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In the ‘60s through the ‘80s, the Nigerian educational system was a model for many African countries, and its tertiary institutions attracted many gifted students and scholars from all over the continent and beyond (Adeaga 2012). In fact, Nigeria was regarded as the UK and the US of Africa where parents sent their children for further studies. However today, the story is a complete reverse since rich Nigerians now send their children not only to the UK and US, but astonishingly, to South Africa, Ghana, Kenya, Tanzania and even Uganda for further studies. What went wrong? Who were responsible for the fall of the Nigerian academic Ivory Tower? How could the old glories of Nigeria’s tertiary institutions be restored? In addition to exploring, identifying and scrutinizing answers to these questions, this paper proposed successful strategies to tame the elephant in the room - corruption in the country’s academia. However, the biggest task of this work isto elucidate how to implement those policies. This is important because corruption must be stopped not just by punishing the culprits but also by sanitizing the entire education system in order to make it extremely difficult for corruption to breed in(Egbefo 2012). Therefore, this article recommends the following “best practices” (Johnson 2012). 1. Promoting the culture of transparency at all levels; 2. Institutionalization of ethical government; 3. Education against corruption for all; 4. Nigerian organizations uniting against corruption; 5. Access to

basic academic procedural information and 6. Role of the family. It concludes qualified candidates for admission and recruitment into any tertiary institution in Nigeria should not give any bribe to be admitted or hired because it is their basic human right. On the other hand, those who are not qualified should not deprive those who are, of their right and positions. Any tertiary institution in Nigeria where honesty, fairness and the rule of law abide, will be corruption-free

corruption in the political life of a nation is a tragedy while corruption in the educational sector is a double tragedy. Because the educational sectors have tremendous capacity to set in motion an uncontrollable reproductive process of corruption in the larger society and thereby mare the development of structures (Onwuka 2009).

 

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8

Title : The Impact of Risk Management on the Profitability of Banks in Nigeria

Authors : Abu Noruwa Ikponmwosa

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The study was set to examine the impact of risk management on the profitability of banks in Nigeria. The primary objective was to assess the effect of risk management indicators on the profitability of deposit money banks. In an attempt to achieve the objective, panel data was collected form fourteen banks (14) in Nigeria. The study adopted a panel regression to evaluate the causality between the variables and to test the hypothesis. Findings from this techniques reveals that loan loss provision to total assets has a positive and significant relationship with Nigeria banks profitability; also that loan to deposit ratio has a positive and no significant relationship with profitability of banks in Nigeria. Furthermore, it was stated that capital adequacy has negative and no significant relationship with profitability of banks in Nigeria; that Non-performing loan has a negative and no significant relationship with profitability of banks in Nigeria. Finally, the study found that bank size has insignificant relationship with profitability of banks in Nigeria. Based on these findings, it was recommended that that deposit money banks should upgrade their risk management and control systems.by establishing sound and competent strategies for risk management, increased capital for sustainable liquidity, sound training on risk management staff on new developments in risk management units which are run by best practices in risk management such as the institution of a clear loan policy and the adherence to underwriting authority and limits, such training will enable them to identify, measure, monitor and control all inherent risk in their day to day business transactions.

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9

Title : The Perceived Role of “Igbe” Religious Practice in the Development of Mental Illness among the Tiv People of Benue State Nigeria

Authors : Astehe P. Aiingona, Philemon A. Agashua , Grace R. Awopetu, Ortese C. Terhemba, Akume B. Iveren

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This study investigated the perceived role of “Igbe” religious practice in the development of mental illness among the Tiv people of Benue State. The “Igbe” religious practice has been part of the Tiv culture for quite a very long time now and despite attribution of the practice to the development of some mental illness no empirical research has been carried out to substantiate this fact. A quantitative and qualitative design was utilized for the study. A purposeful and convenient sampling technique was used for the study. A total of 1540 participants comprising of1037 (64.8%) male and 503(31.8%) female were sampled for the study. The Igbe Inventory a self developed inventory by the researcher for the measure of Igbe and Religious Commitment Scale were used for data collection. Three hypotheses were tested using simple linear regression, independent t-test and chi-square. It was found among others that Igbe religious practice played a significant role in the development of mental illness among the Tiv people. The result also showed a significant age difference on the influence of Igbe religious practice in the development of mental illness among the Tiv people and a significant influence of Igbe religious practice on other ethnic groups in the development of mental illness. Based on the study findings, recommendations were made.

53-58
10

Title : Effect of Internal Control Systems on the Financial Performance of Deposit Money Banks in Osun State

Authors : AFOLABI Chukwudi Segun, OGUNLEYE Joshua Kehinde, OLUKOYA Olanike Alice

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The study investigated and established the relationship between internal control systems and financial performance of deposit money banks in Osun state. Control Environment, Risk Assessment, Control Activities, Information and communication and Monitoring were used as proxy for Internal control systems with Liquidity and Solvency as the measures of Financial performance. The study was conducted using both quantitative and qualitative approaches using Survey type and ex-post facto research design. The population of the study included all the deposit money banks in Osun State, out of which 6 banks were randomly selected for a period of 5 years from 2014 to 2018.  Data were collected via questionnaire and publish financial statement of the sampled banks and were analyzed using multiple regression. The study found that control environment, risk assessment, control activities, information and communication and monitoring exert a significant positive influence on deposit money banks liquidity and positive effect on their solvency. The study concluded that, control environment and information and communication are the two control measures with which deposit money banks improve their solvency level significantly. It is recommended that adequate measures be put in place in various deposit money banks to ensure that the systems of internal control put in place are adequate and working and that the efforts of employees are tailored towards the goal congruence.

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11

Title : Possibilities of Bonding in a Culturally Diverse, Multi-Ethnic Nigeria

Authors : Abiodun Adeniyi, Pauline E.Onyeukwu

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The difference is often a fact of most social setting. Because of this, systems and societies are regularly saddled with their management. People are eventually differentiated in peace, growth and development, based on their ability to engender harmony indifference (Nnoli, N., 1998). In societies where the difference is better managed, conflict, tensions and fears are likely reduced, leading to progress. The reverse may be the case in a social order where the ability to manage difference is lacking. Heterogeneity requires negotiation, consensus-building and control for advancement to come.  Theoretically, homogenous societies are not also absolute, given the reflection of some difference, if not in ethnic identification, but other forms of classifications or divider like class, income or age groups, or in educational or social exposures (Mbogu, N. 2014). Sameness could, however, come from a difference over time and scale, given the possibility of experiencing common practices (Olukoju, 1997). In a society like Nigeria, the practices could be in language, manners and mannerisms, unconsciously developing over periods of intermixing and interrelationship (Edewor, P. et.al, 2014). This paper identifies accent and greeting as conducts through which boundedness have emerged, rather involuntarily, amongst peoples of the multiethnic nation, which could be identified and harnessed for unity, especially in the face of the continuing crisis of unification.

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12

Title : Influence of Social Studies Students Self Perception on Their Academic Performance in Calabar Education Zone Cross River State

Authors : Edinyang Sunday David, Ushie Doris Emmanuel, Urubulam Cecillia

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This study explored the effect of students' self-perception of social studies on their academic performance in Calabar Cross River State Educational Region, Nigeria. The method of descriptional analysis was used. 500 Students in social studies were randomly chosen from the six Local Government sampled schools that make up the district. A 20 item questionnaire was developed and used for data collection with an adjusted four-point Likert scale. Statistical analysis was carried out on the data collected using descriptive statistics to address the study questions. The study showed that there is a substantial relationship between the self-perception and academic success of social studies students. It was proposed that teachers should develop positive attitudes towards students on their own, and as such, promote active involvement in classroom instruction.

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13

Title : Covid-19, Socialization, and Social Change in Calabar Metropolis of Cross River State, Nigeria

Authors : Edinyang Sunday David, Ogbaji Ipuole Dominic, Iwara Helen Benedict

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The impact of covid-19 on different facets of life cannot be overemphasized, especially on socialization. Socialization is a way of life of the people, especially in the way they relate with one another and their engagement in social activities. The purpose of this study was to investigate the influence of Covid-19 on the socialization of the people of Calabar Metropolis in Cross River State, Nigeria. A simple survey design was used for the study. A total of 200 respondents were systematically sampled from the study area. Mainly, data were collected from respondents in their residents using a questionnaire designed by the researcher to determine the effect of Covid-19 on the socialization of the metropolitans. The survey had ten items that were used to elicit responses, of which some were open-ended while some were close-ended questions. Data were collected within 18 days. Data collected were sorted, coded, credited, and analyzed using Statistical Package for Social Sciences (SPSS) version 20 software. The hypothesis set was tested using simple regression analysis significant at a 95% Confidence Interval (0.05). The results were presented using descriptive and inferential statistics. The following were the identified effects of Covid-19 on socialization: people relationship 135(67.5%), affecting religious worship life 167(83.5%), buying pattern 110(55.0%), people's exercise and physical activity 134(67.0%), outing patterns 200(100%), health consciousness 89(44.5%), and personal hygiene 98(49.0%). People avoided handshakes 140(70.0%), embrace 102(51.0%), and hospitals for fear of being diagnosed of Covid-19 of contacting it from health workers or patients 65(32.5%) while increased frequent hand washing 70(35.0%), the use of face mask 180(90.0%) and use of hand sanitizers 83(41.5%). The hypothesis stated showed that there is a significant influence of covid-19 on socialization (P < .000). Continuous adherence to precautionary social measures was recommended, among others.

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14

Title : Human Capital Outsourcing Services and Corporate Performance of Manufacturing Companies in Port Harcourt, Rivers State

Authors : George Yebimodei Esther, Odubo Angonimi, Sani Abubakar

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This study examined the association between Human Capital Outsourcing Services and Corporate Performance of Manufacturing Companies in Port Harcourt, Rivers State. The research adopted a correlational cross-sectional survey design. A total of seventy-five respondents were drawn from existing managerial employees across the twenty five (25) Manufacturing Companies in Port Harcourt. The researcher collected data on a macro level unit of analysis using a five-point Likert Scale. Pearson Product Moment Correlation Coefficient (PPMCC) was used for hypotheses testing. These analyses were conducted using a computer software package called the Statistical Package for Social Sciences (SPSS) version 20.0. The result of the findings revealed that outsourcing human resource services gives rise to corporate profitability and improved market share respectively. Based on empirical findings, the researcher then concluded that outsourcing Human Resource Services significantly and positively affects corporate performance of manufacturing companies in Port Harcourt. The researcher therefore recommended that: Manufacturing Companies in Port Harcourt should stimulate human resource outsourcing in order to achieve profitability and high sales volume.

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15

Title : Developing and Validating a Model for the Adoption of Internet of Things Based Smart Building

Authors : Nicodemus Aketch Ishmael, Dr. Solomon Ogara, Dr. George Raburu

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Buildings are key contributors to climate warning that is very detrimental to the health of the fragile earth that we live in. The climate change needs to be curbed through reduced global warming and since buildings are key contributors of green gas emissions, that’s the right place to start as it is cost effective. The arrival of M2M (Machine to Machine), IoT (Internet of Things), AEP (Application Enablement Platform) technologies that are able to interconnect sensors attached to devices in a building and intelligently, monitor the building is a solution to energy efficient smart buildings. The goal of this study is to develop a model for successful Adoption of Internet of Things Based Smart Energy Building. The study contributes to the widening debate about how the transformation of energy efficient buildings in cities responds to the changing smart technologies and climate change.The developed model was validated through partial least squares Structural Equation Modeling (SEM). The quality of both levels defined in -SEM analysis, i.e., the measurement model and the structural model, were assessed on performance measures defined in literature using  data collected from  national Construction Authority. According to the findings, the study recommends that Internet of Things smart building technologies area necessity for energy efficiency which, if adopted en-mass by an enforceable legal framework, could lead to significant improvement in the adoption rate of Smart Building in Kenya resulting in reduced global warming.

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16

Title : Construction of a Three-Dimensional Chess Board for Bishop Movement within the Forbidden Area with Vector Directives

Authors : M. Laisin, O. C. Okoli, E. I. Chukwuma, C. A. Okaa-Onwuogu.

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In this paper, the authors reviewed that the game of chess is the most highly played game in most part of the world. However, focusing on studies about bishop moves on a chessboard with some current and relevant state of knowledge regarding the two-dimensional and three-dimensional movement of a bishop/rook on a board with forbidden space. We also stated some basic results on vectors that are helpful in analyzing and studying the movements of a bishop on a three-dimensional chessboard. In addition, we showed that the three-dimensional boards with 1 non-attacking bishop can generate a three-dimensional bishop polynomial with a generating function . Furthermore, some problems on bishop moves were solved by applying bishop generating functions.

101-105
17

Title : Harmonization of Tools and Techniques for System Development

Authors : Nengak Iliya Sitlong, Francisca Ogwuleka Nonyelum

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This article looks at the similarities between the two most common system development tools, Data Flow Diagram DFD and Unified modelling Language UML diagrams. It explored the intricacies of the function of notations and meanings of the symbols used in the two modelling tools by pointing out the similarities and contrast between them, then subsequently established facts of how the two modelling tools can be blended together to leverage a combined benefits of the two modelling tools as an entity in system development process.  The research also put side by side the techniques for process modelling which includes interview, questionnaire, survey group and observation. Hence, it provided detailed analysis to justify when one can be preferred over another and made further recommendation on the most efficient model to adopt during process modelling. The article chose as a case study a coach system captioned World Wide Tour Management System (TMS) operating in most part of Europe but predominantly in the UK which is broad enough to provide scenarios for demonstrating the benefits of using Use Case Diagram (UCD), Class Diagram, Communication Diagram and Sequence diagram during both analysis and design phase of process development. In conclusion it was established that DFD are most suited for understanding of functionality of the system operations at requirement gathering stage where as UML models seamlessly reveals all software objects necessary for constructing the proposed system under consideration. 

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Title : Review of Smart Buildings Based On Adoption of Internet of Things Application Enablement Platform

Authors : Nicodemus Aketch Ishmael, Dr. Solomon Ogara, Dr. George Raburu

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Many traditional building materials have benefited from innovative technologies in both manufacture and application. These developments have made several traditional building materials more financially feasible, environmentally friendly and technically sound. Application enablement platforms are designed to accelerate and simplify the development of IoT solutions that can be re-used across industries and market segments such as Smart Buildings in the construction industry. The purpose of this paper is to review technologies required in Smart buildings determinants and the IoT components and capabilities that can be used to mitigate the climate change upheavals in Smart Buildings.

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Title : Predictors of Academic Motivation of Students in Public Secondary Schools in Kiambu County, Kenya

Authors : Munge Anne Muthoni, Dr. Samuel Mutua Mutweleli

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What happens to students after transiting to high school? Many students, who pose good marks in their primary school, unfortunately, fail to record the same while in high school. This can be explained by a close examination of how motivated students are while in secondary school. The core purpose of this study was to investigate factors that may enhance a more sustainable academic motivation during the high school period so that students benefit from the educational process.  Lack of motivation in studies while in secondary school has led to dismal performance in National exams, and many students do not benefit much even after the four years of secondary schooling. Such a concern called for an investigation. This study thus sought to investigate the predictors of Academic Motivation in public secondary schools in Kiambu County, Kenya. To accomplish this task, the study was guided by two research hypotheses. These included: There is a significant relationship between parental involvement and academic motivation in public secondary schools in Kiambu County. There is a significant relationship between school connectedness and academic motivation in public secondary schools in Kiambu County. The study made reference to Deci and Richard Ryan, Self-Determination Theory (1985). The study also made use of SPSS computer software for data analysis. The study also made use of descriptive survey design because it is useful in enabling the researcher to establish the relationship between the two predictor variables and their influence on Academic Motivation.  Among the population, comprised of the form three students. The sample consisted of 240 students from 8 public schools who were selected through simple random sampling. The researcher also carried out a pilot study to check out if the respondents were consistent with the items provided in the questionnaire. Expert judgment was sought from the supervisor in developing and in the revising of the research instrument to ensure that there was validity and also to ensure that the research instrument yielded consistent results after repeated trials. Statistical Procedures were carried out using the statistical package for social sciences (SPSS). The data was analyzed through the quantitative technique. The study revealed that students whose parents are concerned with their studies depicted higher levels of academic motivation.  Students also recorded high levels of motivation if the school environment was conducive.  If these factors were met and strategies laid down for implementation, many students would benefit academic-wise.  Among the recommendations that emanated from the findings was that; parents should be enlightened on the need to get actively involved in the academic activities of their students. The teachers should strive to understand and meet the students’ needs while in school, this will motivate students to learn and eventually attain value for education, which is the core purpose of any education process.

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