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Volume 8 Issue 5

S.No. Title & Authors Page No View
1

Title : Oral Glucose Tolerance and Histopathological Studies of Organs in Alloxan-Induced Diabetic Rats Treated with Tumeric Extracts

Authors : Odesanmi O.E., Aluko B.T, Adebayo O.D, Ogundare M.A.B, John-Mese J.O., Oloyede O.I

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Diabetes mellitus (DM) is a growing health concern worldwide. The use of plants for treatment of DM is widely practiced in Africa. Tumeric is traditionally used as antidiabetic medications. The present study evaluated the effects of ethanol extraction of these plant on the blood glucose tolerance and the pathology of pancreatic β-cell mass, liver and kidneys in diabetic rats. DM was induced in adult male Albino rats, using intraperitoneal injection of 120 mg/kg BW alloxan. The diabetic rats were assigned into three groups, two of which were treated with extract of tumeric (50 mg/kg) and the rats of the third group, as the untreated group received ordinary diet. Glucose Tolerance Test (GTT) which is the determination of body ability to utilize glucose. This test can be used to diagnose pre-diabetes and diabetes. Administration of these extracts tended to aids the utilization of glucose and also decrease the blood glucose concentration, while the blood glucose of the untreated rats remained significantly high and uncontrolled. Histopathologically, tissue sections of the pancreas in the treated rats did not show a significant difference compare to the untreated diabetic rats which has a disrupted pancreas islets cell. The liver of the treated diabetic rats with tumeric extract revealed slight improvement in the hepatic tissue compared to those of the untreated diabetic rats. This study indicated a significant anti-hyperglycemic effect of tumeric and supported its traditional usage in treatment of diabetes mellitus.

01-05
2

Title : On Convergence Field of Some Regular Matrix Transformation

Authors : Zakawat U. Siddiqui, Dauda I. Nkuno

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Some of the properties of convergence field of regular matrix transformation have already been proved.The study of  σ-porous sets has also been carried out . In this paper, we establish the conditions under which the convergence field F(A) of a regular transformation A is porous in S(A), the set of A-limitable real sequence.We also determine the conditions under which F(A) dense in S(A). Further, we prove that the convergence field ofvarious matrix transformation are close inS(A).

06-08
3

Title : Acute Toxicological and In-vivo Anxiolytic Activity Screening of Aqueous and Chloroform Fractions of Hydroalcoholic Tapinanthusglobiferus Leaf Extracts

Authors : Umarudeen A. M., Aminu C

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Extracts of Tapinanthus globiferus and related species are being increasingly used as traditional remedies for diverse diseases including diabetes mellitus, hypertension and nervousness. Yet, scientific reports on the safety and efficacy of extracts and fractions of these medicinal plants are sparse. Theaim of the current study is to investigate the acute toxicological and anxiolytic activities of the fractions obtained from the hydroalcoholic Tapinanthus globiferus leaf extracts (HTG) by Lorke’s method and standard behavioural assays, respectively.Fractionation of HTG yielded mainly aqueous and chloroform fractions. Both fractions had LD50 greater than 5000 mg/kg (oral route). Both extract fractions also demonstrated significant (P<0.05) anxiolytic activities when compared to the negative control on most anxiety parameters in both open-field and elevated zero-maze tests.  However, the aqueous residue fraction exhibited superior anxiolytic activity over the chloroform fraction. These findings suggest that aqueousand chloroform fractions are safe and possess anxiolytic activity, and need be developed further as alternative anti-anxiety agents.

09-12
4

Title : Growth and Optical Properties of Un-Doped and Oil Bean Doped Tin (II) Oxide

Authors : Iwueze Tochi Malachy, Okpala Uchechukwu Vincent, Onuchukwu Chika Christian

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Here, we studied growth and characterization of Tin (II) oxide doped with oil bean seed extracts. Tin (II) oxide was grown by reacting some quantities of aqueous Tin chloride and aqueous sodium hydroxide. Oil bean seeds were grinded, dissolved in distilled water, stirred, and sieved to remove the undissolved parts. Analytical grade glass slides were inserted in the beaker.Samples B6 was un-doped, B7 was doped with 0.2 ml of oil bean extract, B8 was doped with 0.3 ml of oil bean extract, B9 was doped with 0.4 ml ofoil bean extract and B10 was doped with 0.5 ml of oil bean extract.Optical characterization showed that oil bean seed extract decreased the transmittance with peak 50% at wavelength of 800 nm, but improved the absorbance of Tin (II) Oxide with peak above 0.5 at wavelength of 300 nm. The reflectance was too low with maximum peak of 0.2 at wavelength of 800 nm. Samples B7, B8 and B9 have no band gaps but samples B6 and B10 have band gaps of 3.8 and 3.9 respectively and as such can be used as refractory materials.

13-19
5

Title : Impact of Microfinance Services on the Empowerment of Women and Youth: Evidence from Rural Farmers in Anambra State, Nigeria

Authors : Longinus Chukwuma Ejiogu, Renato Andrin Villano

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Often times, microfinance services have been ascribed the role of creating employment opportunities, income generation, as well as poverty reduction, among beneficiaryresource poor rural households across developing countries.  This study examined the impact of microfinance services on empowered rural farmers in Anambra State of Nigeria, especially the financial sustainability of women and youth. The 80 respondents selected and interviewed were those that benefited from the microfinance services.  The data collected were presented and analyzed using descriptive statistics and content analysis.  The results revealed that microfinance services contributed to employment generation, improvedincome as well as the standard of living and general wellbeing of the respondents. This study can also be further extrapolated by incorporating more factors as well as increasing the sample size in order to get more significant results from a wider area.

20-29
6

Title : Feminism in Culture and Religion

Authors : Stella Patrick Essien

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This paper explores ways of establishing liberation for women and making their voices heard. This paper seeks to give women their pride of place in our contemporary society.  The realities of gender inequality, and consequently, gender emancipation in contemporary Africa are explored here. This endeavour will seek to shade upon this discourse light from the scriptures that will lead to authentic living and collaboration, for the authentic transformation of society through works of justice, love and the acquisition of rights, equal to those enjoyed by men, and thereafter draw a meaningful conclusion. The Bible teaches that “God created man and woman in His image and likeness…" (Gen. 1:27) and both had to cooperate with God in bearing and bringing forth children into the world. They were also commanded to conquer and have dominion over all other creatures of the earth… (Gen.1:28). God never intends or made suggestion to discriminate on issues of social and gender distinction. If God ever intended that there should be distinction between man and woman, he would probably have created a separate birth channel for the man, so that the inequality will be clearly spotted. This paper has, however, opined that traditional and religious laws stipulate that women should obey their husbands and be submissive to them, to the church and the society. This paper has advocated for the right and total emancipation of women in all aspects of life, educational and professional opportunities that are equal to that of men. This paper insightfully opines that women who live in oppressive circumstances should find consolation in the Word of God, as the Bible provides the solution to their plights. It consoles, nourishes and sustains them in their struggles and brings them hope. This, however, does not imply that women should sit idle and expect God to redress their suppressed status. They are to stand up and insist for the equality of the children of God.

30-36
7

Title : Establishment of Quality Parameters and Pharmacognostical Profiling of Dialium guinneense L. (Caesalpiniodeae)

Authors : Odoh Uchenna Estella, Ulasi Ijeoma Nneka

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The standardisation of the leaf, stem, and root of Dialium guinnense has been undertaken. The macroscopy, microscopy as well as the transverse section of these parts were studied. The preliminary phytochemical analysis, analytical standards and chemomicroscopical analysis of these parts were also determined. The macroscopical features of the morphological parts showed that the surface of the leaf is green with an entire margin and lanceolate-oblong shape and pubescent. The stem bark has a hard texture and is usually dark grey- brown to black in colour. The root which is light brown in colour consists of a long branched tapped root with a dense mass of superficial feeder roots.  The result of the powdered microscopic analysis showed the presence of non glandular unicellular trichomes ,tracheid fibres, epidermal cells, prism of calcium oxalate,  starch granules, paracytic stomata in the leaf; fibres with bordered pitted vessels, single fibre,  prism of calcium oxalate crystals, cork cell in the stem and bundles of fibres with borderered pitted vessels, prism of calcium oxalate crystals, cork of thin walled cells, sclereids, unicellular non glandular trichome in the root. The transverse section of the leaf revealed the presence of cuticle, epidermis, palisade and spongy mesophyll, vascular bundle;  the stem revealed the presence of  cork cambium, cortex, vascular bundles, secondary xylem and pith and the root revealed the   cork, cortex, vascular bundle and pith.  The phyochemical analysis showed the presence of alkaloids, glycosides, tannins, terpenoids, reducing sugars, carbohydrates, saponins, flavaonoids and steroids. Tannins were found in the leaf and stem while resin was found in the leaf alone. Oil and acidic compounds were absent in all the plant parts tested.  The percentage values obtained for analytical standard of the leaf were 7.50, 1.83, 1.32, 1.65, 10.00, 10.00, and 0.25 % for total ash, acid insoluble ash, water soluble ash, sulphated ash, alcohol soluble extractive, water soluble extractive and moisture content respectively; the stem values were, 4.75, 1.48, 1.40, 1.42, 20.00, 10.00, and 0.15 % for total ash, acid insoluble ash, water soluble ash, sulphated ash alcohol soluble extractive, water soluble extractive and moisture content respectively and the root were 5.00, 1.53, 1.60, 1.40, 10.00, 20.00 and 0.95 % for total ash, acid insoluble ash, water soluble ash, sulphated ash, alcohol soluble extractive, water soluble extractive and moisture content respectively. Chemomicroscopical analysis revealed the presence of tannins, calcium oxalate crystals, cellulose, starch, secretory cells and ducts, Suberized wall and fibres. The data obtained from this study can be used in standardisation of Dialium guineense L. and preparation of the monograph for its possible inclusion in the Pharmacopoeia.

37-46
8

Title : Synthesis and Optimization of Biodiesel from Castor Seed Oil

Authors : Umeuzuegbu J. C.

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Among the various alternatives for fossil fuel, biodiesel is emerging as a promising choice for compression ignition engine due to its renewable nature and superior emission characteristics. This research work focused on the Synthesis and optimization of castor seed oil fatty acid methyl ester (CSOFAME). Solvent extraction was employed for extraction of oil from castor seed. The oil was characterized based on American Society for Testing and Materials (ASTM) method. The fatty acid profile of castor seed oil (CSO) was analyzed using gas chromatography mass spectroscopy (GC MS) while the functional groups of the triglyceride were determined using Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy. The effects of process parameters on the yield of CSOFAME was investigated using one factor at a time method .The oil was pretreated to reduce the free fatty acid beolw 1% and then trasersterified using methanol in the presence of sodium hydroxide catalyst. The fuel properties of the CSOFAME produced were determined based on ASTM standards. Optimization of castor seed oil biodiesel was carried out using response surface methodology. The physiochemical properties of the oil density, free fatty acid, saponification value, iodine value, flash point, pour point, moisture content gave the values of, 766kg/m3, 3.04%, 180.5mgKOH/g, 78.2gI2/100g, 2630C, 0.50C, 0.5%, respectively. The fatty acid profile of CSO consist of saturated fatty acids; stearic acid 0.98%, palmitic acid 1.8% and unsaturated fatty acids; oleic acid 6.i%, linolenic acid 0.91% and recinoleic acid 80.41%. The process parameters of methanol to oil molar ratio, catalyst concentration, reaction temperature reaction time and agitation speed immensely affected the biodiesel yield as their increase resulted in the increase of biodiesel yield until an optimum value was attained when the yield started decreasing. The fuel properties of the COFAME which is within the ASTM standards were determined as acid value 0.460mgKOH/g, density 866Kg/m3, flash point 1560C, cetane number 60.9, calorific value 40.02MJ/Kg, pour point 30C, iodine value 35.20gI2/100g. The use of quadratic regression model from design expert version 12.0 for response surface methodology (RSM) showed optimal biodiesel yield of 91.9% at the optimum reaction conditions of methanol to oil molar ratio 7:1, catalyst concentration 0.9%wt. reaction temperature 600C, and reaction time 65 minutes.     

47-60
9

Title : Evaluation of Charcoal Processing, Utilization and Challenges in Ikole Local Government Area, Ekiti State, Nigeria

Authors : Omoyeni Ademola Ayodeji

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The survey on evaluation of charcoal production was carried out in Ikole Local Government, Ekiti State, Nigeria, with a view to assessing the mode of production, utilization and challenges. Purposive sampling technique was adopted to select both the study area and the respondents used for the study. Seventy (70) copies of a semi-structured questionnaire were administered on respondents in the selected study area. The data collected were analyzed using simple descriptive statistics (Tables, frequency, percentage and chart). The results obtained from the study revealed that charcoal production is by traditional/earth kiln method. The majority (85.7%) of the producers were male, 82.9% fell within the age range of 20-50 years. The result also confirmed that 68.6% of the producers got their wood supply from the wild; 85.0% used Anogeissus leiocarpus (Ayin) for production. Majority (61.4%) of the producers were engaged in charcoal production for income generation; 64.3% were aware of the effect of charcoal production on their environment and 58.6% revealed deforestation as the major environmental effect. Production is bedeviled by challenges ranging from high transportation cost; inadequate wood supply; poor road network to labour shortage. Charcoal is mainly (100%) used for domestic cooking in the study area. Consequently, the results thereby recommend adequate education on afforestation; awareness campaign on effects of deforestation, and promoting the use of alternative feed-stock for wood charcoal.

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