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Volume 8 Issue 4

S.No. Title & Authors Page No View
1

Title : Sodium Chloride Priming Enhances Germination of Stinging Nettle (Urtica dioca L.) Seeds

Authors : Cecilia Wanjau

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Abstract :

Stingingnettle is a useful plant with food and medicinal uses.The green leaves are either cookedand eaten as vegetable or dried and ground in to powder before consumption. It contains high levels of vitamins and minerals providing good nutrition at low costs compare to exotic vegetables. Consequently,there has been increased consumption of stingingnettle in Kenya but large-scale production is limited by lack of reliable planting materials since stingingnettle seeds which are mostly dormant. The objective of this research was to perform pre-germination tests on stingingnettle seeds and determinethe most effective method  to breakseed  dormancy.

200 seeds were soaked in 1%sodium salt for 2 and 5days at 150C while another set of 200 seeds were soaked in 18 Msulphuric acid for 10 and 30 minutes and placed in the germination chamber.

Seeds soaked in distilled water were used as controls. Germination tests were conducted on moistened filter paper in petridishes of 50 seeds each with three replications. Radicle protrusion was observed daily and germination rate assessed as mean days to germination.

Germination rates differed significantly with the time of treatment. Seeds primed with 1% Nacl for 5 days yielded maximum germination rate followed by scarification using 18 MH2SO4 for 30 minutes and no germination was observed in seeds soaked in distilled water at room temperature. Our study indicates that priming seeds with 1% sodium salt solution at 15ºC for 5 days is aviable method for breaking seed dormancy and enhancing uniformity and speed of seed germination.

01-03
2

Title : Endometriotic Uterocutaneous Fistula after Caesarean Section- Successful Diagnosis with Fistulogram and Complete Tract Resection and Medical Treatment: A Case Report

Authors : F. D. H. Olalere, T. O. Kuye, T. A. Ottun, A. A. Adewunmi, Y.A. Oshodi, F. M. Akinlusi, J. O. Agbara, A. F. Tijani

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Extrapelvic endometriosis a is rare condition and most cases occur after gynecological or obstetrics procedure involving the uterus. Uterocutaneous fistula is a rarely reported clinical condition after uterine procedures. In this case report, endometriotic uterocutaneous fistula with lower uterine synechiae following complicated caesarean section was diagnosed simply with fistulogram in a 21year old Nigeria woman. She was managed by fistula tract excision, uterine wall repair, adhesiolysis with rail-roading, combined with medical treatment using gonadotropin-releasing hormone agonist to prevent recurrent fistula and preserve fertility.

04-06
3

Title : A Challenging Nonsurgical Management to Locally Advanced Urethral Squamous Cell Carcinoma

Authors : S Daoudi, S.H Touimi, I Adrif, A Lachgar, H Mrabti, N Benjaafar ,H Errihani

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Urethral squamous cell carcinoma (SCC) is a rare entity, comprising less than 1% of all cancers. The diagnosis is often late because the symptomatology is not specific. Its treatment is essentially surgical but often mutilating. The prognosis remains unfavorable in the majority of cases. The current hope is the combination of chemotherapy and radiotherapy.

 We report a case of squamous cell carcinoma of the urethra which was discovered at a locally advanced stage and treated by neoadjuvant chemotherapy then concomitant chemoradiotherapy that showed complete response to this treatment.

07-09
4

Title : Ocular Metastasis from Breast Cancer: Case Report

Authors : S Daoudi, S.H Touimi, I Adrif, S Naciri, S Boutayeb, N Benjaafar, H Errihani

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Breast cancer can metastasize to many sites, but the eye is an uncommon location. A long interval typically occurs between diagnosis of primary breast carcinoma and detection of orbital and ocular metastasis. It is generally a feature of widespread disseminated disease.

The symptoms of ocular metastasis can be very variable. Diagnosis is based on a thorough medical history and clinical evaluation.

 The treatment is multidisciplinary in order to definie the optimal management of each patient but often with palliative intention and have no effect on survival rates.

 We report a case of a 46 year old woman with a triple negative invasive ductal carcinoma of the right breast, diagnosed and treated 5 years before, who developed an ocular metastasis.

10-12
5

Title : A Rare Case of Paratesticular Leiomyosarcoma

Authors : S Daoudi, I Adrif, M Mokrim, H Mrabti , H Errihani

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Sarcomas of the genitourinary tract are uncommon and represent only 1–2% of all urological malignancies. Paratesticular tumors, which include those arising from testicular tunics, epididymis and spermatic cord are remarkably rare entities. Paratesticular leiomyosarcoma (LMS) is a malignant mesenchymal tumor with smooth muscle differentiation which is difficult to diagnose preoperatively.

The definitive diagnosis requires a histologic examination of a resected specimen to observe morphological and immunohistochemical differentiation. The standard primary treatment for this tumor is radical orchiectomy with high cord ligation. However, a consensus on the optimal treatment has not yet been reached due to the paucity of cases. Close follow-up is necessary to prevent recurrence and distant metastases.

 Here we report a case of a 64 year-old man who presented low grade paratesticular leiomyosarcoma with hepatic metastases.

13-15
6

Title : Leveraging on Mobile Money Business Models for Digital Financial Inclusion of Small Holder Households in Nigeria

Authors : Ugwuja V.Cand, Dickson P.M

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The launch and growth of digital financial services has led to an unprecedented increase in the number of people enjoying access to formal financial services in Africa. Mobile money solutions and agent banking now offer affordable, instant, and reliable transactions in rural villages and urban neighbourhoods where no bank had ever established a branch. This is revolutionary, but Nigeria though having many mobile money operators are more financially excluded than other countries in Africa. Financial exclusion rate in Nigeria is 37%. This is as a result of concentrating only in urban areas and neglecting the smallholder households in the rural communities. This paper examined different mobile money business models such as M-Pesa, Tigo cash and Mobicash that other African countries have used to penetrate their rural communities which made them to be more financially included. Nigeria should then leverage on these models to achieve the same results.

16-20
7

Title : Personality Traits as Correlate of Posttraumatic Stress Disorder among Displaced People in Anambra State

Authors : Ofojebe Chukwuma Philip, Okoli, Paul Chibuike, Chime Peter Ekpunobi

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This study investigated the relationship between personality traits using the Big Five personality trait and post traumatic stress disorder among displaced people from select areas of Anambra State.  Forty eight (48) participants comprising of 30 males and 18 females selected from three Governments Areas of the State participated in the study.  All the participants were recently displaced and suffered huge losses from different tragic occurrences within the country including terrorist attacks and fire disasters. The participants’ ages ranged from 26 to 56 years with mean age of 37.7 and standard deviation of 9.1. Posttraumatic Stress Disorders (PKS) and Big Five Inventory (BFI) were used to assess the PTSD and the five dimensions of personality. Cross-sectional survey design was employed while Pearson’s Product- moment the area to enhance knowledge and improve management of correlation was used as the appropriate statistics. Five hypotheses were tested on whether PTSD is related to personality traits. The result indicated that only hypothesis 4 which states that “Agreeableness trait of personality would not correlate with PTSD among displaced people”, was rejected at(r= -.393, p< .05). The other hypotheses were all accepted. The result was discussed in line with the findings. The researcher recommended that more effort be directed by health workers and therapists to other areas than personality, to unearth the underlying influences on PTSD, for better management. Broader research is recommended in PTSD. 

21-30
8

Title : Influence of Institutional Variables on Numeracy Levels among Lower Primary School Pupils in Kiambu County- Kenya

Authors : Maina Peter Mwangi, Dr. Charity Mukiri Limboro

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Undoubtedly, the aim of formal education is to enable children to develop knowledge and competencies required to thrive in the world of work - industry, technology, science and commerce. To achieve these children must acquire basic numeracy skills that are critical in predictive of children’s future school attainment. In addition, numeracy skills are important for individual activities such as problem solving. Despite the indisputably importance of mathematics pupils’ numeracy levels in lower primary in Kiambu county, is perennially low and yet most important skills of numeracy are acquired at the foundational basic level of a child’s learning. This study examined the influence of institutional variables on numeracy levels among lower primary school pupils in Kiambu County, Kenya. This paper focuses on  two objectives of the study: to examine the influence of school physical facilities on numeracy level among lower primary school pupils and to establish the influence of  availability of teaching and learning materials on numeracy levels among lower primary school pupils in Kiambu County. The study adopted a descriptive survey design. A sample size of 84 respondents comprising of   42 head teachers and 42 lower primary school teachers was obtained through stratified sampling, simple random sampling and purposive sampling techniques. Questionnaire, interview schedule and observation check list were used in data collection.  Quantitative data was analyzed descriptively using frequencies and percentages and presented in tables while qualitative data was analyzed thematically based on the research objectives and presented in narrative forms. The findings revealed that school physical facilities and teaching/learning materials influenced classroom learning environment which contributed to low numeracy levels in lower primary schools in Kiambu County. It was recommended that parents be sensitized to participate in initiatives to help primary schools get funds for physical facilities and teaching /learning materials. Furthermore, government agencies such as County Development Funds (CDF) and county Government funding be increased to help improve school physical facilities. More so, the Government should increase the Free Primary School funding to enable schools buy more teaching/learning materials and improve school infrastructure.

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9

Title : EEG Signal Improvement; Comparison of Different Windows

Authors : V. O. Mmeremikwu, C. B. Mbachu

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Clinical information of the brain is used for analysis, diagnosis and treatment of brain related ailments. The information from the brain is obtained through an electronic device known as the Electroencephalograph. This device reads, records and graphically displays the electrical potentials of the brain of the patient for proper clinical attention from the clinicians. The electrical potential of the brain is called electroencephalogram (EEG). The process of collecting EEG signal involves the placement of electrodes (probes) of Electroencephalograph on the patient’s scalp. It is important to note that the scalp shall be properly shaved for a very good probe-scalp contact. However, all electrical signals travelling on the scalp are picked by the Electroencephalograph. The eye, muscle and heart all generate electrical signals that are traceable to the scalp. All these signals are recorded alongside with the EEG and they constitute a list of unwanted signals or noise to EEG. They compromise the information contained in the recorded EEG and simply make it very difficult for the physicians to affectively use the EEG. Power line interference (PLI) is another signal that corrupts EEG. The presence of any of these unwanted electrical potentials in the recorded EEG is undesirable. Hence proper diagnosis and interpretation are achievable when the noise is removed from the recorded EEG before the signal is displayed. Moreover, this paper compares finite impulse response (FIR) filters modeled with different windows for the purpose of removing 50Hz power line interference from EEG. The FIR filter technique employed, involves the use of ten different windows namely; Kaiser, Parzen, Gaussian, Hann, Hamming, Rectangular, Nuttall, Blackman Harris, Welch and Height Adjustable Sine (HAS) Windows. Effort is made to ascertain the effectiveness of each of the ten FIR filters PLI interference reduction by comparing the mean squared error (MSE) of the filters designed with each of the ten windows. It was concluded that the Hamming Window made the best MSE seconded by the Hann Window.  

 

38-42
10

Title : Retrospective Antibiotic Prescription Pattern in Public Hospitals in Nasarawa State, Nigeria

Authors : Yakubu Boyi Ngwai, Istifanus Haruna Nkene, Rejoice Helma Abimiku, Elisha Yusuf Envuladu

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Antibiotics are the most frequently used group of drugs in healthcare delivery. Their usage pattern varies between countries and healthcare facilities. Hence, the assessment of their usage pattern in healthcare facilities is pivotal to the successful management of infectious diseases. A descriptive retrospective cross-sectional study on antibiotic prescription pattern in public hospitals in Nasarawa State, Nigeria was carried out. A total of 2800 case sheets of patients which accessed public hospitals during the period of 10 years (2008-2018) were randomly sampled and reviewed. The socio-demographic data of the patients in the case sheets were also collected. Antibiotic use by the patients and the use in relation to their socio-demographic factors were determined using descriptive statistics. The overall percentage antibiotic use in Nasarawa State was 45.8%. Nasarawa West (64.4%) had highest use; while Nasarawa South (52.7%) was the lowest. More females (63.4%) than males (61.3%) used antibiotics. Highest use was observed at age 0-10 yr (67.0%); and lowest at >50 yr (49.9%). More in-patients (75.6%) than out-patients (52.7%) used antibiotics. Ciprofloxacin (28.0%) was the most commonly used antibiotic; and streptomycin (0.4%) was the least used. More oral antibiotics (63.4%) than injectables (36.4%) were used. the antibiotic use in typhoid fever (39.8%) was highest; and lowest in eye infections (0.5%). The percentage used of antibiotics under the period reviewed was high and antibiotics namely; ciprofloxacin, gentamicin and metronidazole were most common antibiotic prescribed.

43-50
11

Title : Oil Price-Stock Market Nexus: A Study of Nigeria and South Africa Economies

Authors : Okorie Stanley

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This paper examines the oil price-stock market nexus in Nigeria and South Africa as the two leading economies in Africa. The study applied econometrics method using ARDL/Bound test approach. Secondary data which consists of quarterly time series between 1st quarter 2003 and 4th quarter 2018 were used. Examination of the time series properties of the variable data results show that all the variables, apart from CPI, are I (1) series. CPI is I (0) series.  the Bund/ARDL cointegration shows the existence of a long-run relationship between excess stock market returns and oil price changes in Nigeria, but no long run oil price- stock returns

in South Africa. Estimate of the ARDL model shows   that oil price changes have positive and significant effect on stock market returns in Nigeria in the short-run, but positive and insignificant long run effect. However, oil price changes have positive, but insignificant effect on stock returns in South Africa. The study conclude that oil price shocks contributes to more variability in Nigeria stock market returns than in south Africa, and therefore recommends that the government put in place appropriate policy to reduce sensitivity of the capital market to oil price volatility in Nigeria.

51-58
12

Title : Transportation and Economic Development Nexus in Nigerian Economy

Authors : Okorie Stanley

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The study examined the contribution of transportation to economic development in Nigerian economy between 1980 and 2018. The study adopted anex-postresearch design approach using secondary data collected from various sources and econometrics method of ordinary lest square regression analysis techniques. The analytical framework of the model was based on the Endogenous Growth Model of the Neo-Classical economists. Time series analysis of the study data revealed that the all the variables were not stationary at level, but became stationary after first differencing. Cointegration analysis of the model specification shows that there is a stable long run relationship between transportation system development and economic development in Nigeria. Estimate of the error correction model shows that both transport sector output and investment in transportation infrastructure have positive and significant impact on economic development. Based on these findings, the study concludes that transportation is important to economic development and recommends government investment in transportationinfrastructure as strategy for economic development. 

59-66
13

Title : Studies on Correlation and Linear Regression Analysis between Milk Yield (Offtake) and Milk Composition in Grazing Lactating White Fulani Cows

Authors : G. O. Tona, D. O. Ogunbosoye, O.O. Adewumi, A. A. Akingbade, Y. B. Alaanu

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This study investigated the relationship in the milk yield (offtake) versus the milk nutrients composition in eight grazing lactating White Fulani cows. The milk yield (offtake) and milk composition (proximate composition, minerals and vitamins) data were subjected to measurements of means, linear correlation and linear regression coefficients. The experiment was carried out in a completely randomized design, with 8 milking cows and 22 milking readings per cow during one lactation period. The mean milk yield ranged from 3.00 to 4.50 L/day. There were positive and significant correlation between milk yield and ash (r= 0.74, P< 0.05), milk yield and riboflavin (r= 0.71, P< 0.05). The milk protein was positively and significantly correlated to calcium (r= 0.73, P< 0.05), potassium (r= 0.79, P< 0.05) and phosphorus (r= 0.72, P< 0.05). The regression analysis showed that manganese (Mn) had the greatest effect of 84.99 % determinant of the milk yield. Whereas protein content was negatively correlated (r= - 0.10) and had a negative effect in relationship to milk yield, and this imply that the protein level of the feed consumed by the cows was very low. In conclusion, the results of the multiple regression analysis indicated in the last step that milk protein, fat, carbohydrate, potassium, manganese, thiamine, and vitamin A were the most important variables to be considered when assessing the contribution of the various nutrients to milk yield in the grazing White Fulani cows. Thus, the best equation based on this study for predicting milk yield (offtake) with R2=1, 100% is

MY=-45.429-1.389PR+6.828MF+1.130CARB-0.079K+84.988Mn-17.762THM+0.262Vit.A.

67-73
14

Title : Production, Characterization and Optimization of Biodiesel from Gmelina Seed Oil

Authors : Umeuzuegbu J. C., Ezennajiego E.E., Onukwuli O. D.

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Among the various alternatives for fossil fuel, biodiesel is emerging as a promising choice for compression ignition engine due to its renewable nature and superior emission characteristics. This research work focused on the production, characterization and optimization of gmelina seed oil fatty acid methyl ester (GSOFAME). Solvent extraction was employed for extraction of oil from gmelina seed. The oil was characterized based on American Society  for Testing and Materials (ASTM) method. The fatty acid profile of gmelina seed oil (GSO) was analyzed using gas chromatography mass spectroscopy (GC MS) while the functional groups of the triglyceride were determined using Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy. The effects of process parameters on the yield of GSOFAME was investigated using one factor at a time method .The oil was pretreated to reduce the free fatty acid beolw 1% and then trasersterified using methanol in the presence of potassium hydroxide catalyst. The fuel properties of the GSOFAME produced were determined based on ASTM standards. Optimization of gmelina seed oil biodiesel was carried out using response surface methodology. The physiochemical properties of the oil for density, free fatty acid, saponification value, iodine value, flash poit, pour point, moisture content gave the values of, 896kg/m3, 2.04%, 181.31mgKOH/g, 64.12gI2/100g, 2400C, 20C, 4%, respectively. The fatty acid profile of GSO consist of saturated fatty acids; lauric acid 15.05%, myristic acid 5.85%, palmitic acid 54.94% and stearic acid 4.57% and unsaturated fatty acids; oleic acid 8.4%, linoleic acid 1.98%, and linolenic acid 8.9% . The main constituent functional groups of GSO are alkene group, hydroxyl group , carboxylic group. alkyne group, amine group etc. The process parameters of methanol to oil molar ratio, catalyst concentration, reaction temperature and reaction time immensely affected the biodiesel yield as their increase resulted in the increase of biodiesel yield until an optimum value was attained when the yield started decreasing. The fuel properties of the GSOFAME which is within the ASTM standards were determined as acid value 0.5mgKOH/g, density 874.1mm2/s, flash point 5%, cetane number 64.2, calorific value 38.33MJ/Kg, pour point 30C, iodine value 34.2gI2/100g. The use of quadratic regression model from design expert version 12.0 for response surface methodology (RSM) showed optimal biodiesel yield of 91.5% at the optimum reaction conditions of methanol to oil molar ratio 9:1, catalyst concentration 1%wt. reaction temperature 500C, and reaction time 65 minutes.     

74-86
15

Title : Protective Potentials of Aqueous Bark Extracts of Unripe Lemon (Citrus limon) on Plasma Glucose and Triacylglycerol in Healthy Albino Rats

Authors : Benedicta Erere Kasia, Aneke Adaeze Perculiar, Proph The Prophet

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Background- Citruslimon is one of the major fruits that grow throughout the world with refreshing juice and health benefits. Numerous therapeutic properties have been ascribed to its use such as anti- ulcer, anti-tumor, anti-inflammatory as well as its ability to control blood glucose.

Objective

 The aim of this study was to determine the effects of aqueous bark extracts of unripe citrus limon on plasma glucose, triacylglycerol concentrations and weight of normal albino rats as well as histopathological examination of the liver, hearts and kidney sections of the rats.

Materials and Methods                                                                                                                                            The test groups were administered a dose of the extract (2ml/kg body weight) twice daily in addition to growers mash while the control group was exposed to only grower’s mash and distilled water. The plasma glucose and triacylglycerol concentrations were measured by spectrophotometry. Both groups were weighed on the weighing scale on test days up to the 28th day after which the animals were sacrificed and histological examination was done.                                                                                                                                                               

Results

The result showed significant (p<0.05) reduction in plasma glucose, triacylglycerol and weight in the test group when compared to the control. The histological report showed that the aqueous extract of citrus limon was neither cardiotoxic, hepatotoxic nor nephrotoxic.

Conclusion       

    Conclusively the aqueous bark extract of Citruslimon could have protective and therapeutic effects in the reduction of high blood glucose and triacylglycerol levels in a number of metabolic syndromes including diabetes mellitus in  humans and may also be effective for weight loss as may be necessary for stable health conditions.

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16

Title : Plasma Total Protein and Albumin Assessment amongst Apparently Healthy Young Adults of Niger Delta University

Authors : Benedicta E. Kasia, Robert Tamunoemi Ebeye, Prohp The Prophet

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The aim of this research was to assess the synthetic function of the liver amongst apparently healthy students of Niger Delta University. An analytical cross-sectional study on 102 individuals (55 males and 47 females) between ages 20-40 was conducted. An interviewer-administered questionnaire was used to collect data on the socio-demographic characteristics and probable risk factors of disease. Blood specimen was collected for measurement for total protein and albumin concentration. Result revealed that the female albumin and total protein value was found higher than the male value with a mean ± standard deviation of 39.47±1.16 and 67.98±8.16 (female) and 38.55±7.21 and 67.75±10.02 (male) but was not statistically significant at p<0.05. The albumin and total protein value of individuals between 20-30 years was higher than the albumin and total protein value of individuals between 31-40 years. The result also showed majority of the respondents were within the normal laboratory reference ranges for albumin (35-50g/L) and total protein (62-80g/L). In conclusion, these results indicates hepatic synthetic function  amongst  majority of the studied respondents.                                                           

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17

Title : Turkey Production in Gwagwalada Area Council of Federal Capital Territory, Abuja, Nigeria

Authors : Agbonika D.A, Folorunsho S.T

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Turkey production in gwagwalada is still on a small scale compared to other poultry birds’ production. This paper estimated the cost and returns of turkey production using structured questionnaire to elicit information from 60 turkey producers in gwagwalada area council of federal capital territory, Abuja, Nigeria. Descriptive statistics was used to get socio-economic characteristics such as age, marital status, gender, level of education, etc of the turkey producers, net farm income model was used for cost and return analysis, gross margin model shows the profitability index. Findings of the study show that turkey production was carried out mainly as secondary activities by adults of 35-44 years of age. The respondents had formal education. Turkey production in the study area was found to be profitable with a profit investment ratio of 0.82. The cost of feeding was as high as 50.8%, fixed and variable input was 9.2% and 90.85% of the total cost of production respectively. The system of production was 85% semi-intensive style. The major diseases of turkeys reported in the area were fowl pox and ectoparasites. High cost of poults, high cost of feeds, unorganized market, poor extension services, high cost of vaccine/drugs, turkey theft were the constraints of turkey production in the area. Advantages of turkey production, proper management of turkey production and government roles in making turkey production lucrative were stated.

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18

Title : A Study of the Enrolments and Achievements of Male and Female Students in Integrated Science in Colleges of Education in Nigeria: Implications for Basic Science Education in Nigeria

Authors : AGABA Kenneth Chika, OGWUCHE Mathias

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The purpose of the study was finding out if differences exist in the enrolments and achievements of male and female students' in integrated science in colleges of education in Nigeria. The populations of the study are all the students' that enrolled and studied integrated science in colleges of education in Nigeria. The sample consisted of 839 students', made up of 129 males and 710 females. The sampling technique was purposive. The design of the study was ex-post-facto. The instruments for data collection were students' enrolment lists and integrated semester results for 2014-2018. The, semester results were selected by cluster, and as well, simple random sampling techniques. Two research questions and two hypotheses posed for the study. Mean, standard deviation, t-test and Z-test statistics at 0.05 significant levels were used to analyze the data collected. The results obtained showed that differences exist in the enrolments and achievements of male and female students' in integrated science, and these differences were not statistically significant. The observation above implies that there are no gender differences in the enrolments and achievements of male and female students' in integrated science in colleges of education in Nigeria. The researcher also highlighted the implications of the findings to the teaching and learning of basic science in primary and junior secondary schools in Nigeria. The researcher recommended, among another, that authorities of colleges of education in Nigeria shall endeavour to enroll, without discrimination, male and female candidates to study integrated science in their schools.

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19

Title : Effect of Power Quality Disturbances on Compact Fluorescent Light (CFL) Bulbs in Ibadan, Oyo State, Nigeria

Authors : Oladosu D. A., Sodiq M. O., Folami F. T., Opaleye E. T.

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It was quite established that Compact Fluorescent Light (CFL) Bulbs consumes One-quarter  to one-fifth   of the energy used by Incandescent Light Bulb to provide the same level of light. About 25% of energy consumed by CFL is converted into visible light compared with just 5% for a conventional Incandescent Lamp. However, the unpredictable threat of Power Quality Disturbances on life span of CFL is presently mitigating against patronage of the product  Their major concern are the results  of  voltage surge  and flicker from cyclic load variation in Single Phase Energy System which have adverse effect on Compact Fluorescent Light bulbs and drastically shorten the life span of the CFL.  These are ever increasing in today’s voltage power supplies for every residential houses and to apply surge suppression for

overvoltage required technical knowledge. Conversely, research has shown that voltage sag occurs more frequently than voltage surge and the influx current from under voltage can also actually cause appliances damage. Hence this study provides an insight into a failure mechanism resulted from Power Quality Disturbances that have a notable effect on the CFLs. It employed the usage of survey questionnaire to select most commonly used CFL Bulbs using likert approach so as to have the broad view of the usage of the selected bulbs and to establish the effect of Power Quality Disturbances on CFL bulbs, in such a way that cause and effect relationship could be developed. The questionnaires were mapped per locality within Ibadan metropolis on three (3) strata; High, Medium and Low Income Areas

Regression analysis was carried out between the independent variable: Power Voltage (Voltage swell/voltage sag) and the dependent variables; Energy Saving Bulbs (CFLs) used to test the research hypotheses shown that the effect of Power Quality Disturbances were very minimal on Compact Fluorescent Lamp (Energy Saving Bulb) while high income areas consumed more energy compared to medium and low income areas with the number of CFL Bulbs and frequency of replacements. However, there was no significant effect on the usage of the item and its life span.

109-115
20

Title : Group Invariant Solutions Derived from Equivalent Lagrangian in a Class of Kuramoto Sivashinsky (KS) Equations

Authors : J E Okeke, O C Collins

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The method of equivalent Lagrangians yields transformation maps which can be used to find solutions and conserved quantities of a class of Kuramoto Sivashinsky equations. Furthermore, we utilize the Lie algebra admitted by the equation to obtain an optimal system of one dimensional subalgebras for the equation. All equivalent invariant solutions corresponding to these subalgebras are presented.

 

116-120
21

Title : Lie Symmetries, Exact Solutions and Hidden Symmetries of a Class of Kuramoto Sivashinsky(KS) Equations

Authors : J E Okeke, O C Collins

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We study a class of non-linear partial differential equations, which describes the longitudinal motion of an elasto-plastic bar and anti-plane shearing deformation. In order to systematically explore the mathematical structure and underlying physics of the elasto-plastic flow in a medium, we generate all the geometric vector fields of the model equations.

Using the classical Lie group method, it is shown that this equation does not admit space dilation type symmetries for a specific parameter value. The symmetry reductions and exact solutions to this equation are derived.

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22

Title : Implementation of School Health Policy: Echoing Its Prospects in Combating Emerging Health Challenges in Nigeria

Authors : OMOTAYO Gabriel Ojo, ALIYU Isiaku Nda

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Health challenges appear to be advancing at almost equal pace with technology and science within the globe. Governments in both developed and developing countries seem to be overwhelmed with these challenges. In Nigeria, apart from the dreaded coronavirus that entered in February 2020, the emergence and re-emergence of Yellow Fever, Monkey Pox, Lassa Fever, Cholera among others have exacerbated government challenges. Health authorities at global and national level recommended that citizens must be well informed and embraced proper hygiene practices irrespective of their age and status. To achieve this, education and perhaps the school is one of the key sectors that must be engaged to attain the SDGs 3 by 2030. Thus, the implementation of the School Health Policy (SHP) becomes imperative in order to make the education system contribute significantly to the fight against emerging diseases. This paper therefore appraised the scope and status of the SHP. The constraints to SHP implementation were categorized into school and government factors. The emergence of viral diseases which thrive on poor attitude towards immunization, vaccination and hygiene practices were identified as the major health challenge confronting Nigeria. The prospects of health programmes prescribed in the SHP in combating emerging health problems especially in the areas of sensitization, early discovery of diseases and provision of essential health information were discussed. It was inferred that the health programmes recommended in the SHP were not comprehensively and uniformly provided in all schools in the country. The study recommended that the Federal Ministry of Education should come up with policy compliance measures that will involve proper monitoring, assessment and evaluation in order to make the school active in combating emerging and re-emerging health challenges in the country.

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23

Title : The Three-Dimensional Angle for Rook Movement within the Restricted Area is its Cosines of the Angle Generated by the Vectors on the Chess Board

Authors : M. Laisin, J. E. Okeke, E. I. Chukwuma

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In this paper, the works of some authors were briefly reviewed with some relevant literature and current state of knowledge pertaining to the three-dimensional proposed rook movement on a chess board within the restricted area were closely studied. We also described some basic terminologies that are helpful in analyzing and studying the rook movements on a three-dimensional chess board. 

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