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Volume 8 Issue 3

S.No. Title & Authors Page No View
1

Title : Social Economic Factors Influencing Adoption of Improved Livestock Farming Practices among Members of Livestock Cooperatives in Kajiado County, Kenya

Authors : Ketente Gedion Kipaya, Dr. Purity Nguhiu, Dr. Leonard Munga

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Background to the Study- Livestock contributes about 12% of Kenya’s Gross Domestic Product (GDP), about 42% of the agricultural GDP and 50% of the agricultural sector employment (GOK, 2018). Over 60% of the livestock is found in the arid and semi-arid Land (ASAL) of Kenya. The sector employs 90% of the local population and the ASALs form about 80% of the country’s land area (Barrett al., 2003). Kajiado County lies in the Kenya’s ASAL, and pastoralism is the main means of livelihood. Pastoralism as source of livelihood has faced increasing challenges due to population and land pressure, animal diseases, policy issues and climate variability. Further Barrette et al. (2003) noted that it is not known how much herd structures have changed in the ASAL in the preceding ten years as a result of increased commercialization and other factors. Availability of beef animals may be far less than development planners acknowledge. However GoK  (2011) acknowledges that Kenya was already not self-sufficient in beef and mutton. It is likely that the country might also behaving deficits in other livestock products.

Transforming livestock from subsistence to commercialized undertaking by applying modern technologies acquired through continuous research and innovations (GoK, 2019).  Use of traditional ways of Livestock farming amongst pastoralists in Kajiado has not given way to adoption of modern farming methods that would greatly improve livelihoods in line with the Kenya Vision 2030 and the big four food security agenda. According to the (GoK, 2019), the rural-based nature of livestock activities makes livestock keeping a suitable enterprise to improve household food and nutrition security, incomes, job creation and contribute to sustainable livelihoods for many people in the rural areas

It is appreciated that over 80% of Kenya’s land mass is arid and semi-arid and livestock is the main source of livelihood in these areas. It is further noted that even in the non-ASAL areas, the livestock sub-sector constitutes an important source of family income and food security. In addition, livestock directly contributes to the foreign exchange earnings for our nation through export of livestock products, live animals and germplasm. As such, livestock development agenda in the country will be pursued towards commercialization (GoK, 2019). Value addition of livestock can provide opportunities for increased production and in-situ conservation of indigenous species. In addition, exploiting the potential in value addition especially in terms of enhancing the productivity of the livestock will in the long run be cost effective due to controlled feeding and monitored health condition of the animals (Aklilu and Wekesa, 2002). Pastoralist livestock trade, especially with cross-border involvement, also has positive effect on indigenous animal genetics utilization and conservation, importation of exotic genetics and, but may also lead to transmission of trans-boundary diseases. It has been reported that growing financial pressures, food insecurity and frequent droughts are increasingly pushing pastoralists to sell more animals than before, regardless of productivity, age or sex (Pavanello, 2009). Value addition in agricultural commodities can be defined as improving the natural and conventional form, quality and appeal of a product, thus increasing the consumer valuation beginning from farm level to marketing of finished products. The potential for value addition within the agricultural sector is enormous for most of the commodities, and so would be the gains from value addition (Mlote et al., 2012). The present study examined the value addition of livestock at farm level among the pastoralists.

01-09
2

Title : Examining the Correlation between Teachers Pedagogic Content Knowledge and Student Achievement in Mathematics

Authors : Clement Vakang Tari, Ayuba Ibrahim

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This paper tried to unveil the relationship between teachers’ pedagogic content knowledge and students’ achievement in Mathematics using Educational Psychology Interactive process. It reviewed the concept of pedagogy, highlighted its components and how these components are related using a framework called “A Transactional Framework of the Teaching/Learning Process developed by W. Huitt in 2003. It can be seen that the students’ achievement therefore, is a process in which the teachers’ and students’ characteristics relate with teachers’ and students’ behaviours in the classroom processes in addition to the environment to produce students’ performance.

10-16
3

Title : Renewable Energy: A Case for AFE Babalola University (Abuad)

Authors : OYELEKE AMINAT B.

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Over the years, most institutions and industries in Nigeria are connected to the electrical grid but due to the inconsistent power supply of electricity in the country, most of these communities meet their electricity demand through diesel generators and in rare cases, gas generators. The major purpose of this study is to propose the best hybrid technology combinations for electricity generation from a mix of renewable energy resources to satisfy the electrical needs of Afe Babalola University, Ado Ekiti, Ekiti state, Nigeria. The hybrid systems will be chosen to the requirements of approximately 15MWh/day with a peak load of 1.285MW. Two renewable resources namely, wind system, and solar photovoltaic systems and bio-diesel generators are considered. The software that will be employed for the analysis of generation mix is HOMER because it performs hundreds or thousands of hourly simulations over and over in order to design the optimum system. It offers a powerful user interface and accurate sizing with detailed analysis of the system. The analysis drawn from this is that, it is more cost effective, reliable and environmentally friendly to use the optimal hybrid option than the conventional method used by the school as the 10 biodiesel generators have a total capital cost of approximately $534,426 and cost of operation and maintenance is approximately $780,360 per year and BEDC charges the university approximately $497,679 per yea, therefore the university spends a total cost of about $32,075,619 for 25 years. On the other side, running a hybrid renewable energy generation including grid cost a total of about $8,000,000 for 25 years. That is the hybrid system is more viable than the current system of operation of the university with relatively reduced carbon dioxide.

17-22
4

Title : Determinants of Police Use of DNA in Rape Investigations in Nairobi County, Kenya

Authors : Kennedy Nyaga Njeru

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Use of DNA technology has become a critical tool for resolving investigations of rape cases. It helps police agencies to accurately identify perpetrators of sexual offences. However, in Nairobi County, this is not the case with incidences of rape being on the rise and low reporting rates. Thus, this study assessed the determinants of police use of DNA in rape investigations, in Nairobi County, Kenya. The objectives were; assessing the levels of rape cases and the influence of police training, availability of DNA facilities and police officers’ attitude towards DNA on use of DNA in rape investigations. The study was based by Factor Theory of Motivation and Innovation Diffusion Theory. The study adopted descriptive research design. Qualitative data were analyzed thematically along study objectives and presented in narrative forms. Quantitative data were analyzed descriptively using percentages and frequencies with the help of Statistical Packages for Social Science (SPSS Version 23) and presented using tables and charts. The study established that rape cases among women is high in Nairobi County. It is also evident that there are many factors which determine the extent to which police officers use DNA in rape investigations. These include; training, availability of DNA facilities and attitude of police officers towards DNA. Thus, the study recommends that victims of rape cases should be quick to report. The police officers should also act with speed to solve already reported cases of rape to act as motivation for victims of such rape to report and be assured of getting justice. More training should be done to update police officers on all the aspects of DNA and how fast they can use it to unravel complex cases by identifying potential and real culprits. More resources should be allocated to ensure that enough facilities are provided and labs equipped with up to date equipment which can provide results from DNA samples as fast as possible. Police officers should show much interest in DNA by understanding how its aspects operate and function in unraveling truth about rape cases. National Police Service should redesign police training curriculum to include training on use of DNA in evidence gathering before being deployed from Police Training Colleges. 

23-30
5

Title : Analysis of Sheep Value Chain: The Case of Abera (Hula and Dara), Sidama Zone, SNNPR, Ethiopia

Authors : Tizazu Toma Dilebo

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Though sheep value addition is common in Abera, producers complain that their margin from the practice is low. Abattoirs also complain that they are working below their potential due to lack of sheep supply. Therefore, this study is aimed to identify factors affecting performance of sheep supply and marketing chain in terms of value chain analysis. To do that, data were collected from randomly selected 134 sheep producers, 4 cooperatives, 27 traders, 10 processors and 25 consumers. The data collected were analyzed using descriptive statistics, mapping approach and econometric model. The result indicated that there were 5 main value chain actors in Abera. Namely, input suppliers, producers, traders, processors and consumers. Feed, veterinary, transport,training/advisory; and credit suppliers were identified as support chain actors. 22 sheep flow channels were identified. Channels I, II, VI, VII, and XV were long and sophisticated. Large volume of sheep was flowed through channel XXI from which farmers got low margins. The mean profit of producers was birr 427.25; of traders was birr 507.13; and of processors was birr 3097. Largest profit was earned by processors and the smallest by producers. 13 variables were hypothesized to determine intensity of participation in sheep value addition. Of these, 6 variables, total income, experience, family size, education, total land holding and credit use, were found to be significantly affecting households’ extent of participation in sheep value addition. The study indicated the need to establish linkage among farmers; shorten long supply chain; expand formal education, supply credit; introduce IGAs; and provide experience sharing mechanisms.

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6

Title : Combining Ability and Heterosis for Grain Yield and Yield Related Components in Maize Resistant to Striga hermonthica (Del.) Benth. in Southern Guinea Savannah of Nigeria

Authors : O.E. Abimiku, L.L. Bello, L. Omogui, T. Vange

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Eight maize inbred lines resistant to Striga hermonthica (Del) Benth were crossed in 8 x 8 half diallel following Griffing mthod II model 1 in a Randomized Complete Block Design (RCBD) with three replications at two different Striga infested environments (Lafia and Makurdi) during the late cropping season of 2014 and 2015. The objectives were to evaluate the potential performance of inbred lines in hybrid combinations, and determine their combining abilities and heterosis  in the development of new Striga resistant varieties  Data collected were used to estimate combining ability and heterosis for grain yield and other yield components (plant height, days to 50%tasseling, days to 50% silking, Striga damage rating, Striga emergence count, ear length, ear diameter, 100 seed weight and grain yield per hectare.) The result of combined ANOVA revealed that means square were highly significant for all traits except Striga damage rating (SDR) at 8WAS and Striga emergence count (STEC) at 8WAS. P12 was the highest yielding parent and P12 x P14 was the highest yielding cross. Heterosis for grain yield was high in all parents except in those involving p4 and p24 as parents. Parents  P2, P5, P12 and P14 shows significant (p ˂ 0.05) positive GCA effects for grain yield while the rest had negative GCA effects for grain yield. ParentP2, P5, P12 and P14 could be used for initiating hybrid development.  P12 x P14 cross was the best specific combiner followed byP2 x P14 and P2xP12 and P5x14. However, P5, P 12 and  P14 manifested a high positive SCA effect with P2 indicating that these three inbreds combined better with P2.

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7

Title : Aneurysmal Bone Cyst of the Dorsal Spine: Case Report

Authors : S.H Touimi, S Daoudi, I Mbarki, I Adrif, H Elkacemi, S Elmajjaoui, T Kebdani, H Errihani, N Benjaafar

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Aneurysmal bone cysts are uncommon lesions, especially in the spine. They account for 1.4% of all primary bone tumors and 15% of all primary spine tumors. ABCs are expansible cystic lesions and can be locally aggressive.

There is a definite predilection for the lumbar region and the neural arch is the part of the vertebra most commonly affected. It is recommended that treatment should consist of total excision or when this is not possible, curettage. Radiotherapy should be reserved for those few cases where operation is inadvisable.

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8

Title : Cervical Osteoblastoma: Case Report

Authors : S.H Touimi, S Daoudi, I Mbarki, I Adrif, H Elkacemi, S Elmajjaoui, T Kebdani, H Errihani, N Benjaafar

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Osteoblastoma is a rare benign primary bone tumor. It accounts for 3% of benign and 1% of all primary bone tumors. They typically involve the posterior elements, although extension through the pedicles into the vertebral body is not uncommon. These osseous neoplasms usually present in the 2nd decade of life with dull aching pain, which is difficult to localize.

The treatment goal is complete surgical resection. This treatment limits the risk of recurrence. Adjuvant radiotherapy and chemotherapy are generally not undertaken, although some have advocated their use after less aggressive surgical maneuvers or with residual tumor.

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9

Title : Glioblastoma Occurred 20 Years after Cerebrospinal Irradiation: Case Report and Literature Review

Authors : S.H Touimi, I Mbarki, H Elkacemi, S Elmajjaoui, T Kebdani, N Benjaafar

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Radiation-induced gliomas represent a relatively rare but well-characterized entity in the neurooncologic literature. Age-related cerebral vulnerability could be a specific factor in the genesis of these complications.

The occurrence of a malignant glioma at the site of a preexisting medulloblastoma is exceptional.

Our purpose is to review the literature regarding the role of radiotherapy (RT) in the treatment of patients with radiation-induced malignant gliomas (RIMGs)

These findings support the notion that radiation-induced GBM should be considered a distinct clinical entity. Further understanding of multiple genetic changes after radiation will help protect patients who have already been cured of their original malignancy.

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10

Title : Management Agility Strategies and Customer Service Delivery Efficiency: Evidence from Selected Deposit Money Banks in Lagos State, Nigeria

Authors : Binuyo A. O., Itai M. M

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The banking industry plays an important role in the economic development of a nation. Its efficiency is of great concern to all stakeholders. Studies in Nigeria on bank efficiency focused on the use of financial ratios. However, there seems to be paucity of research on management agility strategiesand customer service delivery efficiency. Management agility strategies in Nigeria appears to be ineffective as most banks have recorded low customer satisfaction, retention, loyalty. This study examined management agility strategies and customer service delivery efficiency of selected deposit money banks in Lagos State, Nigeria.The study employed cross sectional survey research design. The population was 6,975,037 deposit money bank customers in Lagos State, Nigeria. The sample size of 1,019 was determined using Krejcie and Morgan table. Stratified random technique was adopted to select the respondents. Structured questionnaire was adapted and validated for the data collection.The Cronbach’s alpha reliability coefficients of the constructs rangedfrom 0.83 to 0.86. The response rate was 97.84%. Data were analysed using descriptive and inferential statistics.Findings revealed thatmanagement agility strategies had significant effect on customer service delivery efficiency(Adj.R2 = 0.704, F (5, 990) = 473.583,p < 0.05). The study concluded thatmanagementagility strategies affect customer service delivery efficiency of deposit money banks.The study recommended that management of Nigerian deposit money banks should evolve business models that will enhance adoption of management agility strategies in order to achieve and sustain overall bank efficiency.

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11

Title : Prostate Cancer Awareness and Screening among Men in Eldoret, Kenya

Authors : Oyungu Eren, Njiru Evangeline, Mugalo Edward, Wawire Ann Kabimba, Nyamberi Shem, Bundotich Gladys, Nyongesa Susy

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Background: Prostate cancer remains one of the leading causes of male mortality despite advances in its treatment and prevention. The low level of awareness is thought to contribute to delayed diagnosis and hinders goal-directed interventions in prostate cancer prevention.

Objectives: To determine the level of awareness and screening for prostate cancer among males in a peri-urban population.

Design: Descriptive cross-sectional study and cluster sampling was used to select a sample size of 385 men. Data was collected using an interviewer-administered questionnaire which captured information on demographics, level of awareness and screening for prostate cancer.

 Setting: The study took place in Maili Nne, Eldoret Municipality in Uasin- Gishu County.

Subjects: Men aged 40 years and above.

Results: Out of the 385 men 112 (29.1%) were aware of prostate cancer. In response to any cancer they had heard of, 42.14% had heard of breast cancer while 23.5% and 10.7% had heard of cervical and prostate cancer respectively. Given a list of possible symptoms of prostate cancer, 67% could identify at least one symptom. The majority (56.43%) did not know any method of screening for prostate cancer, and among those who knew, the tests identified were a urine test, PSA/Blood Test, digital rectal examination and bone test by 17.4%, 12.86% and 10.71% and 2.9% respectively. Ten percent of the men had been screened for prostate cancer in the five years preceding the study. There was no significant association between prostate cancer awareness and screening behavior (OR 1.704, 95% CI 0.868 – 3.347). Men 40 – 50 years were less likely to have been screened. A belief that prostate cancer is curable; having heard of prostate cancer and knowing that prostate cancer affects men only were significantly associated with the probability of having undergone screening.

Conclusion: Awareness of prostate cancer among men in Maili Nne is low, and screening remains unacceptably low. Public health interventions aimed at reducing prostate cancer mortality should aim at increasing awareness as well as behavior change to embrace screening.

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12

Title : Liberalization of the Electricity Sector: The Nigerian Experience

Authors : OYELEKE Idowu Lateef

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The liberalization of the Nigerian electricity sector was initiated to address inefficiencies in the sector and increase the participation of the private investors. So much is said and known on the reforms but what has not been very obvious is the extent of successes and losses that have been made in the sector since the reforms. This study thus examines the liberalization exercise in the Nigerian electricity sector in order to determine the pros and cons that have come about as a result and chart the progress of the country in the electric sector. The theory of public and private interest provides the framework, while the exploratory design was adopted utilising laws, case laws and legal principles. The purposively selected laws were the (1999) Constitution of the Federal Republic of Nigeria (FRN) (as amended), the Electric Power Sector Reform (EPSR) Act (2005), and Energy Commission of Nigeria Act (1979). Case laws that are relevant to the reform were selected from law reports and policy documents. Regulations have been identified to be ineffective in Nigeria due to the proliferations of institutions and regulatory agencies. The regulatory, legal and institutional framework of the electric power sector reform in Nigeria has not been effective.  The amendment of the conflicting provisions in the Electric Power Sector Reform Act (2005) needs to be in tandem with the (1999) Constitution Federal Republic of Nigeria as this is crucial and capable of strengthening the capacity of the relevant institutions.

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13

Title : Large Ovarian Dermoid Cyst in Pregnancy with Successful Pregnancy Outcome: A Case Report

Authors : F. D. H. Olalere *, T. O. Kuye, J. O. Agbara, A. F. Tijani

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Large mature teratoma (Dermoid cysts) in pregnancy is rare, occurring in 1 in 1000 pregnancies. A 26-year-old Gravida 6, Para 2+3(2alive) woman, post caesarean pregnancy at term, presented with clinical and Ultrasound scan diagnosis of a large, symptomatic rapidly growing and complex left cystic ovarian mass of a month duration. Obstetrics findings were normal. Exploratory laparotomy with ovarian cystectomy was done and a live female infant weighing 2.65kg was delivered by caesarean section. Histopathology analysis showed benign mature ovarian cystic teratoma with corpus luteum cyst.  The patient and infant had uneventful post-operative recovery and were discharged 7 days later. Both were well at 4 weeks of follow up and were   discharged to the gynecology and family planning clinic for ongoing follow up. Dermoid cyst is a possible differential in a rapidly growing adnexal mass coexisting with pregnancy. Prompt surgical intervention should be considered to achieve successful pregnancy outcome.

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Title : The Effects of Temperature and Blending On the Density and Viscosity of Neem Fatty Acid Methyl Ester

Authors : Umeuzuegbu J.C., Ude C. N., Onukwuli O.D.

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The effects of temperature and blending on the density and kinematic viscosity of neem fatty acid methyl ester (NFAME), diesel and their blends was investigated followed by development of empirical models for predicting the density and kinematic viscosity of neem biodiesel, diesel and their blends.The NFAME was blended with diesel in conical flasks with continuous stirring for uniformity of mixing at a percentage volume ratio of biodiesel to diesel  of 0, 20, 40, 60, 80, 100% referred to as B0, B20, B40, B60, B80, B100. The density of the blends was determined using pycnometer while the kinematic viscosity was determined using Brookfield viscometer at temperatures of 30, 40, 60, 80, 100oC. The results showed that NFAME has physiochemical properties that is within the ASTM limit and is therefore suitable as compression ignition engine fuel. The density of the NFAME, diesel and their mix decreased linearly with increase in temperature and increased with increase in biodiesel fraction. The kinematic viscosity of the neem biodiesel, diesel and blends decreased exponentially with increase in temperature and increased with increase in biodiesel fraction.Based on the model with highest coefficient of determination, linear model and quadratic model were the best for fitting density and kinematic viscosity respectively as a function of temperature. Second order polynomial proved the best fitting model for density variation with biodiesel fraction and for kinematic variation with biodiesel fraction.

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15

Title : Effect of Small and Medium Scale Enterprises on Nigeria’s Economy

Authors : Ameh Paul Ojimaojo,Alao. M. Murtadho, Amiya Bhaumik

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Small and medium enterprises (SMES) in any country play a vital role in economic growth and development of a nation. The main purpose of this research is to examine the impact of small and medium scale enterprises on Nigeria economy growth and development. A simple random sampling (SRS) was adopted for the selection of sample of this study. Data were collected using questionnaire, library and desk research were employed for the methodology of this thesis; a pilot survey was organized to deduce and discern any ambivalence questions that were poorly constructed. The research shows that SMES contribute in economic growth of a nation through creation of employment opportunities, it also shows that government to contribute positively to the development of SMES in the study area. The study concluded that small and medium enterprises remain an important contributor to the development of Nigeria. The study recommended that Since SME’s is a tools for economic growth in Nigeria, the state government should readily and freely assist the SME’s sectors to have access to information relating to business opportunities, raw materials, markets goods and services which enable them reduce their operating cost and be more efficient and comparative, also more credit scheme should be provided.

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Title : Growth and Optical Properties of Un-Doped and Bamboo Doped Tin (II) Oxide

Authors : Iwueze Tochi Malachy, Okpala Uchechukwu Vincent, Onuchukwu Chika Christian

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In this research work, we studied the optical properties of Tin (II) oxide doped with Bamboo Stem extract. Tin (II) oxide was grown by reacting some quantities of aqueous Tin chloride and aqueous sodium Hydroxide and allowed to deposit on a glass slide using chemical bath technique. Bamboo stem wasgrinded and dissolved in distilled water, stirred, and sieved to remove theundissolved parts of the dopant.Samples B1 was un-doped, B2 was doped with 0.2 ml of bamboo extract, B3doped with 0.3 ml of bamboo extract, B4 doped with 0.4 ml and B5doped with 0.5 ml.Optical properties of the samples were determined. Results showed that the peaks of bamboo doped Tin (II) oxideoccurred at angles of 22o, 27o, 31o, 35o, 45 o, 55 o, at 2 with light intensities of 220, 400, 630, 490, 200, 110 counts respectively. The introduction of impurities of Bamboo stem extract to Tin (II) Oxide increased the band gap. The band gap ranged from 3.8 to 3.9. The samples can be used in making of antireflective coating, mirrors, transparent glasses and in high temperature/high power devices.

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