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Volume 8 Issue 3

S.No. Title & Authors Page No View
1

Title : Social Economic Factors Influencing Adoption of Improved Livestock Farming Practices among Members of Livestock Cooperatives in Kajiado County, Kenya

Authors : Ketente Gedion Kipaya, Dr. Purity Nguhiu, Dr. Leonard Munga

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Abstract :

Background to the Study- Livestock contributes about 12% of Kenya’s Gross Domestic Product (GDP), about 42% of the agricultural GDP and 50% of the agricultural sector employment (GOK, 2018). Over 60% of the livestock is found in the arid and semi-arid Land (ASAL) of Kenya. The sector employs 90% of the local population and the ASALs form about 80% of the country’s land area (Barrett al., 2003). Kajiado County lies in the Kenya’s ASAL, and pastoralism is the main means of livelihood. Pastoralism as source of livelihood has faced increasing challenges due to population and land pressure, animal diseases, policy issues and climate variability. Further Barrette et al. (2003) noted that it is not known how much herd structures have changed in the ASAL in the preceding ten years as a result of increased commercialization and other factors. Availability of beef animals may be far less than development planners acknowledge. However GoK  (2011) acknowledges that Kenya was already not self-sufficient in beef and mutton. It is likely that the country might also behaving deficits in other livestock products.

Transforming livestock from subsistence to commercialized undertaking by applying modern technologies acquired through continuous research and innovations (GoK, 2019).  Use of traditional ways of Livestock farming amongst pastoralists in Kajiado has not given way to adoption of modern farming methods that would greatly improve livelihoods in line with the Kenya Vision 2030 and the big four food security agenda. According to the (GoK, 2019), the rural-based nature of livestock activities makes livestock keeping a suitable enterprise to improve household food and nutrition security, incomes, job creation and contribute to sustainable livelihoods for many people in the rural areas

It is appreciated that over 80% of Kenya’s land mass is arid and semi-arid and livestock is the main source of livelihood in these areas. It is further noted that even in the non-ASAL areas, the livestock sub-sector constitutes an important source of family income and food security. In addition, livestock directly contributes to the foreign exchange earnings for our nation through export of livestock products, live animals and germplasm. As such, livestock development agenda in the country will be pursued towards commercialization (GoK, 2019). Value addition of livestock can provide opportunities for increased production and in-situ conservation of indigenous species. In addition, exploiting the potential in value addition especially in terms of enhancing the productivity of the livestock will in the long run be cost effective due to controlled feeding and monitored health condition of the animals (Aklilu and Wekesa, 2002). Pastoralist livestock trade, especially with cross-border involvement, also has positive effect on indigenous animal genetics utilization and conservation, importation of exotic genetics and, but may also lead to transmission of trans-boundary diseases. It has been reported that growing financial pressures, food insecurity and frequent droughts are increasingly pushing pastoralists to sell more animals than before, regardless of productivity, age or sex (Pavanello, 2009). Value addition in agricultural commodities can be defined as improving the natural and conventional form, quality and appeal of a product, thus increasing the consumer valuation beginning from farm level to marketing of finished products. The potential for value addition within the agricultural sector is enormous for most of the commodities, and so would be the gains from value addition (Mlote et al., 2012). The present study examined the value addition of livestock at farm level among the pastoralists.

01-09
2

Title : Examining the Correlation between Teachers Pedagogic Content Knowledge and Student Achievement in Mathematics

Authors : Clement Vakang Tari, Ayuba Ibrahim

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This paper tried to unveil the relationship between teachers’ pedagogic content knowledge and students’ achievement in Mathematics using Educational Psychology Interactive process. It reviewed the concept of pedagogy, highlighted its components and how these components are related using a framework called “A Transactional Framework of the Teaching/Learning Process developed by W. Huitt in 2003. It can be seen that the students’ achievement therefore, is a process in which the teachers’ and students’ characteristics relate with teachers’ and students’ behaviours in the classroom processes in addition to the environment to produce students’ performance.

10-16
3

Title : Renewable Energy: A Case for AFE Babalola University (Abuad)

Authors : OYELEKE AMINAT B.

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Over the years, most institutions and industries in Nigeria are connected to the electrical grid but due to the inconsistent power supply of electricity in the country, most of these communities meet their electricity demand through diesel generators and in rare cases, gas generators. The major purpose of this study is to propose the best hybrid technology combinations for electricity generation from a mix of renewable energy resources to satisfy the electrical needs of Afe Babalola University, Ado Ekiti, Ekiti state, Nigeria. The hybrid systems will be chosen to the requirements of approximately 15MWh/day with a peak load of 1.285MW. Two renewable resources namely, wind system, and solar photovoltaic systems and bio-diesel generators are considered. The software that will be employed for the analysis of generation mix is HOMER because it performs hundreds or thousands of hourly simulations over and over in order to design the optimum system. It offers a powerful user interface and accurate sizing with detailed analysis of the system. The analysis drawn from this is that, it is more cost effective, reliable and environmentally friendly to use the optimal hybrid option than the conventional method used by the school as the 10 biodiesel generators have a total capital cost of approximately $534,426 and cost of operation and maintenance is approximately $780,360 per year and BEDC charges the university approximately $497,679 per yea, therefore the university spends a total cost of about $32,075,619 for 25 years. On the other side, running a hybrid renewable energy generation including grid cost a total of about $8,000,000 for 25 years. That is the hybrid system is more viable than the current system of operation of the university with relatively reduced carbon dioxide.

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4

Title : Determinants of Police Use of DNA in Rape Investigations in Nairobi County, Kenya

Authors : Kennedy Nyaga Njeru

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Use of DNA technology has become a critical tool for resolving investigations of rape cases. It helps police agencies to accurately identify perpetrators of sexual offences. However, in Nairobi County, this is not the case with incidences of rape being on the rise and low reporting rates. Thus, this study assessed the determinants of police use of DNA in rape investigations, in Nairobi County, Kenya. The objectives were; assessing the levels of rape cases and the influence of police training, availability of DNA facilities and police officers’ attitude towards DNA on use of DNA in rape investigations. The study was based by Factor Theory of Motivation and Innovation Diffusion Theory. The study adopted descriptive research design. Qualitative data were analyzed thematically along study objectives and presented in narrative forms. Quantitative data were analyzed descriptively using percentages and frequencies with the help of Statistical Packages for Social Science (SPSS Version 23) and presented using tables and charts. The study established that rape cases among women is high in Nairobi County. It is also evident that there are many factors which determine the extent to which police officers use DNA in rape investigations. These include; training, availability of DNA facilities and attitude of police officers towards DNA. Thus, the study recommends that victims of rape cases should be quick to report. The police officers should also act with speed to solve already reported cases of rape to act as motivation for victims of such rape to report and be assured of getting justice. More training should be done to update police officers on all the aspects of DNA and how fast they can use it to unravel complex cases by identifying potential and real culprits. More resources should be allocated to ensure that enough facilities are provided and labs equipped with up to date equipment which can provide results from DNA samples as fast as possible. Police officers should show much interest in DNA by understanding how its aspects operate and function in unraveling truth about rape cases. National Police Service should redesign police training curriculum to include training on use of DNA in evidence gathering before being deployed from Police Training Colleges. 

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5

Title : Analysis of Sheep Value Chain: The Case of Abera (Hula and Dara), Sidama Zone, SNNPR, Ethiopia

Authors : Tizazu Toma Dilebo

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Though sheep value addition is common in Abera, producers complain that their margin from the practice is low. Abattoirs also complain that they are working below their potential due to lack of sheep supply. Therefore, this study is aimed to identify factors affecting performance of sheep supply and marketing chain in terms of value chain analysis. To do that, data were collected from randomly selected 134 sheep producers, 4 cooperatives, 27 traders, 10 processors and 25 consumers. The data collected were analyzed using descriptive statistics, mapping approach and econometric model. The result indicated that there were 5 main value chain actors in Abera. Namely, input suppliers, producers, traders, processors and consumers. Feed, veterinary, transport,training/advisory; and credit suppliers were identified as support chain actors. 22 sheep flow channels were identified. Channels I, II, VI, VII, and XV were long and sophisticated. Large volume of sheep was flowed through channel XXI from which farmers got low margins. The mean profit of producers was birr 427.25; of traders was birr 507.13; and of processors was birr 3097. Largest profit was earned by processors and the smallest by producers. 13 variables were hypothesized to determine intensity of participation in sheep value addition. Of these, 6 variables, total income, experience, family size, education, total land holding and credit use, were found to be significantly affecting households’ extent of participation in sheep value addition. The study indicated the need to establish linkage among farmers; shorten long supply chain; expand formal education, supply credit; introduce IGAs; and provide experience sharing mechanisms.

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6

Title : Combining Ability and Heterosis for Grain Yield and Yield Related Components in Maize Resistant to Striga hermonthica (Del.) Benth. in Southern Guinea Savannah of Nigeria

Authors : O.E. Abimiku, L.L. Bello, L. Omogui, T. Vange

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Eight maize inbred lines resistant to Striga hermonthica (Del) Benth were crossed in 8 x 8 half diallel following Griffing mthod II model 1 in a Randomized Complete Block Design (RCBD) with three replications at two different Striga infested environments (Lafia and Makurdi) during the late cropping season of 2014 and 2015. The objectives were to evaluate the potential performance of inbred lines in hybrid combinations, and determine their combining abilities and heterosis  in the development of new Striga resistant varieties  Data collected were used to estimate combining ability and heterosis for grain yield and other yield components (plant height, days to 50%tasseling, days to 50% silking, Striga damage rating, Striga emergence count, ear length, ear diameter, 100 seed weight and grain yield per hectare.) The result of combined ANOVA revealed that means square were highly significant for all traits except Striga damage rating (SDR) at 8WAS and Striga emergence count (STEC) at 8WAS. P12 was the highest yielding parent and P12 x P14 was the highest yielding cross. Heterosis for grain yield was high in all parents except in those involving p4 and p24 as parents. Parents  P2, P5, P12 and P14 shows significant (p ˂ 0.05) positive GCA effects for grain yield while the rest had negative GCA effects for grain yield. ParentP2, P5, P12 and P14 could be used for initiating hybrid development.  P12 x P14 cross was the best specific combiner followed byP2 x P14 and P2xP12 and P5x14. However, P5, P 12 and  P14 manifested a high positive SCA effect with P2 indicating that these three inbreds combined better with P2.

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7

Title : Aneurysmal Bone Cyst of the Dorsal Spine: Case Report

Authors : S.H Touimi, S Daoudi, I Mbarki, I Adrif, H Elkacemi, S Elmajjaoui, T Kebdani, H Errihani, N Benjaafar

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Aneurysmal bone cysts are uncommon lesions, especially in the spine. They account for 1.4% of all primary bone tumors and 15% of all primary spine tumors. ABCs are expansible cystic lesions and can be locally aggressive.

There is a definite predilection for the lumbar region and the neural arch is the part of the vertebra most commonly affected. It is recommended that treatment should consist of total excision or when this is not possible, curettage. Radiotherapy should be reserved for those few cases where operation is inadvisable.

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8

Title : Cervical Osteoblastoma: Case Report

Authors : S.H Touimi, S Daoudi, I Mbarki, I Adrif, H Elkacemi, S Elmajjaoui, T Kebdani, H Errihani, N Benjaafar

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Osteoblastoma is a rare benign primary bone tumor. It accounts for 3% of benign and 1% of all primary bone tumors. They typically involve the posterior elements, although extension through the pedicles into the vertebral body is not uncommon. These osseous neoplasms usually present in the 2nd decade of life with dull aching pain, which is difficult to localize.

The treatment goal is complete surgical resection. This treatment limits the risk of recurrence. Adjuvant radiotherapy and chemotherapy are generally not undertaken, although some have advocated their use after less aggressive surgical maneuvers or with residual tumor.

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9

Title : Glioblastoma Occurred 20 Years after Cerebrospinal Irradiation: Case Report and Literature Review

Authors : S.H Touimi, I Mbarki, H Elkacemi, S Elmajjaoui, T Kebdani, N Benjaafar

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Radiation-induced gliomas represent a relatively rare but well-characterized entity in the neurooncologic literature. Age-related cerebral vulnerability could be a specific factor in the genesis of these complications.

The occurrence of a malignant glioma at the site of a preexisting medulloblastoma is exceptional.

Our purpose is to review the literature regarding the role of radiotherapy (RT) in the treatment of patients with radiation-induced malignant gliomas (RIMGs)

These findings support the notion that radiation-induced GBM should be considered a distinct clinical entity. Further understanding of multiple genetic changes after radiation will help protect patients who have already been cured of their original malignancy.

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