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Volume 8 Issue 2

S.No. Title & Authors Page No View
1

Title : Managing Intractable Identity Conflicts in Kenya: Need To Escalate the Women Involvement

Authors : Alloyce Kennedy Odhiambo, Mphande Chitumbiko Celestine

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Abstract :

The debate on gender role has been on universally for a while now. The background being that the women have been discriminated especially in a society ruled by men. The argument around the capacity and role of women is very complex. The original role of women in African set up were made to appear cheap/less than men role with the event of colonization and the consequence was to be a long period of struggle for space and recognition by the African women. Whatever it is, the role changed and the struggle to occupy the new spaces created by colonization is still ongoing. The contemporary African woman is so many things including; an Engineer, a politician, a doctor, a teacher and the list continues. All these have to be balanced with the original role of an African woman which includes; motherhood and home administration and creating the balance is a great challenge since the modern women have abandoned some of the original roles terming them primitive. Much of these roles have been transferred to the house helps including the Divine role of Motherhood. Kenya like many other African countries have been the arena of conflict before and after independence. There have been frameworks to address the conflict and such frameworks have failed in one way or another because of many reasons such as lack of political goodwill, inadequate involvement of key stakeholders such as the women. I am of the argument that despite the fundamental significance that women play out in peace and development, they have never been sufficiently involved. My proposal which is the theme of this paper is the need to escalate the involvement of the women in managing intractable identity conflicts (IICs) in Kenya.

01-10
2

Title : Determination of the Suitability of Sand Deposits from River Yargamji for Making Container Glass

Authors : Muhammad Aminu, Muntari Abubakar, Lawal Alqasim, Saifullahi Sani

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Glass is a unique material that has been produced for thousands of years. The glass industry’s products are an integral part of the world economy and everyday life. Glass products are used in food and beverage packaging, lighting, communications, transportation, and building construction. The purpose of this research work is to determine the suitability of sand deposits at River Yargamji for making container glass. The materials used were: sets of sieves, sieve shaker, EDXRF machine, Beakers, Weighing balance, Plastic containers, HCl and distilled water. The sand samples were obtained by hand digging with hoe and were collected from five  different locations in the site, they were mixed thoroughly, divided into two and were labeled A and B respectively. The samples were washed with tap water until a clear water start flowing. Undiluted HCl acid was poured into sample A, while, 50% by 50% HCl and distilled water were mixed and poured into sample B, the mixtures were stirred simultaneously. After 25minutes, the mixtures were decanted and the samples were thoroughly washed with distilled water, then the samples were allowed to dry. Particle size analysis was determined by passing the material through a series of sieves stacked with progressively smaller openings from top to bottom and weighing the material retained on each sieve. X-Ray Fluorescence (XRF) Analysis was used to carry out the chemical analysis of the samples and the results were tabulated. Batch was calculated and formulated. The results shows that the sand deposits is suitable for glass making due to their high SiO2 content and low Fe2O3 content coupled with suitable grain size distribution fractions. The sand deposits in Katsina is recommended for the production of glasses such as container, float, windscreen, fluorescent tubes, etc. because the sand contain high percentage of SiO2, it also yielded a clear glass.

11-15
3

Title : Synthesis, Characterization and Evaluation of Antimicrobial Potency of Fe(II), Mn(II), Cu(II), Co(II) and Zn(II) ion complexes with Schiff Base, Derived from Salicylaldehyde and p.toluidine

Authors : Nnamani Johnson Onuorah, Nasiru Pindiga Yahaya, Wilson. L. Danbature, Mohammed Umar

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Fe(II), Mn(II), Zn(II), Co(II) and Cu(II) complexes of Schiff base were synthesized and characterized by different physico-chemical techniques. The metal (II) complexes were characterized by solubility testing, melting point, molar conductance, UV-Vis and FTIR spectral studies. The high melting point of the complexes showed stability of the metal complexes. The values of molar conductance of the Schiff base, and all the metal (II) complexes are in the range of 3.0 – 36.6 S.cm2 mol-1. These values indicate that they are all non-electrolytes.  The UV-Vis spectral studies have shown hypochromic shift in the metal (II) complexes of the Schiff base. The FT-IR spectral have shown that the Fe(II), Mn(II), Zn(II), Co(II) and Cu(II) ions coordinated to the Schiff base through the v(C=N) at 1618 cm-1 . The v(OH)  of the Schiff base at 3469 cm-1  disappeared in the metal(II) complexes showing the deprotonation and binding of the hydroxyl oxygen to the metal atom. The ability of these metal(II) complexes to inhibit the growth of disease causing organisms such as Staphylococcus aureus (Gram positive bacteria), E.coli, Klesiella pneumonia, Salmonella typhi (Gram negative bacteria) and Aspergillus niger and Candida albicans (Fungi isolates) were compared with the standard drugs (erythromycin and fungusol) respectively. The results of antimicrobial activity have revealed that most of the complexes are more potent against the isolated microbes as compared to the standard drugs.

16-21
4

Title : Piece Rate Pay and Employees Performance at Satcom Block Industry, Nasarawa-Nigeria

Authors : Zakka Gandu Casimir

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The human capital is the most important and most underutilize asset in an organization. The wage reward system could affect the employee’s performance and also may reflect on the corporate and financial standing of the organization. Piece rate pay and employee’s performance could be the solution for optimum employee’s performance and reduction of inefficiencies and hence this study becomes very apt. The study adopts a survey research design. A census study was considered because the target population was small to sample hence the entire population of Satcom Block Industry employees totaling 25 were used for this study. The major technique used for data analysis is ANOVA and multiple regression. The result shows a positive effect of Equilibrium Piece Rate Pay and High Piece Rate Pay on Employee’s Performance while the result shows a negative effect of Low Piece Rate Pay and Partial Piece Rate Pay on Employee’s Performance. The study recommended that:- Piece rate pay-setting should be subjected to collective bargaining. piece-rate systems should be simple and transparent, rewards employees according to the difficulty and quality of their work, ensuring that workers can earn substantially more than the minimum wage. Employers should organize special training for workers to inspire confidence among workers and also improve the quality of their output.

22-27
5

Title : Effect of Crude Oil Contaminated Soil on Phaseolus Vulgaris L

Authors : Adeyemi O, Adeyemi O

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Effect of crude oil contaminated soil on physical and biochemical propertiesof beans (Phaseolus vulgaris) was investigated. Thirty polythene pots, each containing 10 kg of surface soil, were randomly placed on a table in the screenhouse in a factorial combination of five treatment levels (0.4%, 0.3%, 0.2%, 0.1% and 0% w/w) of crude oil and were designated P4, P3, P2, P1 and P0respectively. Three seeds of beans per pot were planted. Growth parameters (plant height, stem girth, relative water content (RWC), and soluble protein content (SPC)) and antioxidant indices were determined in the beans over a period of nine weeks after planting (WAP). Results showed that growth of beans planted in contaminated soil was significantly lower (p<0.05) than that of control. Beans planted in the contaminated soil also showed a significant increase (p<0.05) in superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT), peroxidase (POD), ascorbate peroxidase (APX) and glutathione reductase (GR) activities in leaves when compared with control plants. The results suggest that crude oil contaminated soil hindered availability of water, air and nutrients to beans roots, creating a drought condition which could induce oxidative stress in the plant and consequently retarding growth and yield of beans plant.

28-33
6

Title : Genetic Variability, Heritability and Cluster Analysis in Some Accessions of Pepper (Capsicum Spp)

Authors : E. B. Ishaya, A. S. Gana, D. A. Ayeleke, O. O. Obogun, M. O. Akinyele, G. A. Idowu

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Morphological and cytological evaluation of pepper accessions is important for breeding and improvement programme on the crop. The lack of understanding on the genetic variation of pepper accessions has led to little progress in breeding and improvement of the crop. Therefore, the objectives of this study were to characterize some available pepper accessions based on morphological, agronomic and cytological characters and their suitability for subsequent use in breeding programme. The field experiment was conducted at GidanMangoro, Bosso Local Government Area,Minna, Niger State, in a randomized complete block design with three replications. The cytological investigation was carried out at the laboratory of the Department of Crop Production, Federal University of Technology, Minna, Niger State. Data were collected on plant height, leaf length, leaf width, days to first flowering, days to 50 % flowering, fruit length, fruit girth, number of fruits, average fruit weight average seed weight and plant growthhabit. From Analysis of Variance, genotypic variance (GV), phenotypic variance (PV), genotypic coefficient of variation (GCV), Phenotypic Coefficient of Variation (PCV),heritability and genetic advance were estimated. There were significant differences in the accessions studied. Analysis of variance for genetic diversity revealed that plant height, leaf width and all yield components studied contributed to genetic diversity. The highest heritability value was observed in average fruit weight per plant (98 %). Accessions DKD-RD and DG-SB performed best as characterized by early days to first flowering, number of fruits per plant, number of branches and fruit girth. The variance of component of variation result revealed that PCV values were greater than those of GVC. Also, genetic advance (GA) was higher than heritability. The cytological study showed that at meiosis, two daughter cells divides and formed four daughter cells thereby contributing to genetic variation. Based on the findings of this research work, it is recommended that breeders should collect germplasm from DKD-RD, DG-SB, DSKT-RD and DADAM for further breeding and improvement programme of the crop.

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7

Title : Examining Performance Expectancy and Effort Expectancy as determinants of Secondary School Teachers’ Behavioural Intention to use Mobile Technologies for Instruction in Kaduna State, Nigeria

Authors : BURAIMOH Oluwaseun Funmilola, YUSUF Mudasiru Olalere, OLUSANJO Micheal Oluwole, AJIJOLA Esther Modupe, Aladesusi Gboyega Ayodeji

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Mobile technologies have significant impact in our daily activities and it has improved how people gathered and make use of information. In spite of its significant for improving instructional process, the factors that influence teachers’ behavioural intention have not yet been given due attention. The study therefore aimed at examining the determinants of secondary school teachers’ behavioural intention to use mobile technologies for instruction in Kaduna State. The study benefited from the Unified Theory of Acceptance and Use of Technology (UTAUT) model choosing two construct from this model (performance expectancy and effort expectancy) to investigate teachers’ behavioural intention to use mobile technologies for instruction. Data was collected from 958 teachers from four education zone in Kaduna State which include Giwa, Kaduna, Sabon-Tasha and Zaria. A descriptive study of cross-sectional survey was employed in the study. Researcher designed questionnaire was used to gather information. Descriptive statistics of mean was used to analyze the research questions while multiple regression was used to analyze the formulated hypothesis. The findings indicated that PE and EE of the respondents have positive influence on the behavioural intention to use mobile technologies with grand mean of 3.14 and 3.18. Also, there was significant relationship between the independent variables (PE & EE) and the dependent variable (BI). Based on the findings of this study, it was concluded that PE and EE are strong determinants of teachers’ behavioural intention to use mobile technologies for instruction. It was therefore recommended that secondary school teachers should be given adequate training on the use of mobile technologies for effective instructional delivery.

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8

Title : Social Contract Theory and Civil Disobedience in Nigeria: A Study of Boko Haram Insurgency

Authors : MADUEKWE Vincent Chuks, BOSAH Patrick Chinedu, OKOYE Peter Beluchukwu

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The ideal purpose of the state has been variously conceived in political theory, leading to competing theories of state, one of which is the Social Contract Theory. With its earliest systematic postulation in the political philosophy of Thomas Hobbes, this theory gained much currency in the modern era. Although it was briefly eclipsed towards the turn of that era after Kant, it has been revived in contemporary political discourse, such as it is posited by John Rawls. The Social Contract Theory is both a theory of morality as well as a theory of the state. This study focuses on the latter dimension of the theory, in which it attempts to provide philosophical basis for the existence of the state and offers justifications for political obligation. It regards the state as the product of a pact or covenant. Perhaps most importantly, it offers a rational framework for reconciling the imperatives of governmental authority with the rights of the governed. This study sought to find out the impact of social contract theory on civil disobedience in Nigeria. It follows from this theory that the Constitution of the state must originate from the people or at least, according to some versions of

it, be a hypothetical expression of their rational will. From that premise, this work suggests that the Nigerian state should be governed on the basis of commonly shared principles of justice. It goes further to argue that the Social Contract Theory of the state is an ideal.

48-58
9

Title : Effect of Marketing Strategies on the Performance of Small and Medium Scale Enterprises in Benue State

Authors : Adamu Garba

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This study work examined the examine the effect of marketing strategies on the performance of small and medium scale enterprises in Benue State. The researcher used primary data for the study from population of 490 registered small and medium scale enterprises.  A sample of 220 respondents used for the study and information from the respondents were obtained by the use of a structured questionnaire. The data collected were analyzed using Ordinary Least Square Regression analysis. Also, the hypotheses of the study were tested using the probability value of the regression estimates. The result of the regression analysis indicates that a pricing (PRI) has a positive effect on Performance of Small and Medium Scale Enterprises in Benue State (PFM) and the relationship is statistically significant (p<0.05) and in line with a priori expectation. Promotion (PRO) was negatively related with Performance of Small and Medium Scale Enterprises in Benue State (PFM) and the relationship is not statistically significant (p>0.05) and not in line with a priori expectation. Branding (BRD) is positively related to with  Performance of Small and Medium Scale Enterprises in Benue State (PFM) and the relationship is statistically significant (p<0.05) and in line with a priori expectation. This means that a unit increase in branding will lead to a corresponding increase in Performance of Small and Medium Scale Enterprises in Benue State (PFM) by a margin of 7.0 percent. It was concluded that the performance of Small and Medium Scale Enterprises is inadvertently tied to how management can utilize the marketing strategies at its disposal. It was recommended among others that management of the Small and Medium Scale Enterprises in Benue State should ensure that they intensify effort in promotion so that it can increase its performance. 

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10

Title : Use of Analytical Hierachy Process (AHP) To Compare Transportation Modes of Gas-To-Liquid (GTL) Products from the Niger Delta Region of Nigeria to Overseas

Authors : Chikwe A.O.

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In the selection of transportation mode, decision makers are confronted with a lot of criteria; such as availability, delivery time or speed, price, reliability and safety. Under these criteria, two transportation modes are considered in this study. They include pipeline and marine for GTL products from the Niger Delta region of Nigeria to US or Europe. AHP is a very useful tool in this respect. It applies statistics and modelling to decision selection. Based on the model, marine transportation mode result was calculated to be 0.590 while pipeline was calculated to be 0.410. Hence marine transportation mode becomes the preferred option.

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11

Title : An Appraisal of Information Resources, Access, Use and Services in Public Universities in North Eastern Nigeria

Authors : Bappa Isa Magaji

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The study appraise the information resources, access, use and services in the public universities in north eastern Nigeria with library users and staff as the main target respondents. The survey research design was adopted and questionnaire was used for data collection.  The data collected for this study was analysed using inferential statistics, mean, and standard deviations in answering the research questions. The study reveals that there is very high level of availability and accessibility of information resources in Nigeria public universities in the north east. Majority of the respondents used information sources daily. The problems faced by the library users is that majority of the respondent agreed that inability to get relevant materials was their greatest problems, Delay in receiving requested materials, spending personal cash to buy substitute materials, and Cost of access to the Internet. The strategies to enhance their resource utilization includes: acquire and make available current information sources, as well as assisting the users in sourcing of information from other modern information technologies, organize the library materials for easy access, they should engage in information packaging and repackaging. The study concluded by recommending among others that libraries in the north east should acquire up to date, current and relevant information resources to improve the quality of their collections in terms of adequacy, relevance and currency. The libraries should acquire information resources to meet their user’s curriculum and needs to achieve this; they must sample users’ opinion to find out their information needs and repackage their resources and services to meet those needs. Information retrieval tools should be made available and accessible to library users for ensure easy accessibility of needed information resources. The library should provide current awareness service to their users; this will make the users aware of what is available in their field of study.

75-81
12

Title : Organization of Employees Records for Governance and Protection of Human Right in Three Federal Higher Educational Institutions in Adamawa State, Nigeria

Authors : Hafiz Umar

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This article presented organisation of employee records for governance and protection of human right in Federal higher educational institutions in Adamawa State, Nigeria. There is definition of the terms: records management, governance, accountability, protection of human right. The article identified the type of employee records management practices, the arrangement patterns utilised, the challenges associated with the management of employee records in the institutions studied. Descriptive research design was adopted for the study. 235 questionnaire were administered and 220 were returned duly completed. Lack of adequate number of professional staff in the management of employees records in the institutions and many others were among the challenges in the institutions. Conclusion were drawn and possible solutions provided.

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13

Title : Prevalence of Hypoglycaemia in Children admitted into the Emergency Paediatric Unit of University of Abuja Teaching Hospital Gwagwalada, Nigeria

Authors : Solomon Gideon Bulus, Kudirat E Olateju, Uduak M Offiong

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Objectives: The Objective of this study was to determine the prevalence of hypoglycaemia among children admitted in Emergency Paediatrics Unit of University of Abuja Teaching Hospital, Gwagwalada.Method: This was a prospective descriptive study where 379 children admitted into Emergency Paediatrics Unit who met the inclusion criteria were recruited into the study. A study proforma was used to obtain the patients biodata, clinical parameters and socio-demographic characteristics. Blood samples were collected and plasma glucose was determined using glucose oxidase method before commencement of management. Hypoglycaemia was defined as plasma glucose of <45mg/dl. . Data analysis was done using the statistical package for social sciences version 20 and statistical significance was set at p-value<0.05.Results: A total of 379 children aged one month to 17 years were studied over a period of one year.  About seventy percent (68.6%) of the patients in the study were aged five years and below.  Twenty four (24) children had hypoglycaemia giving a prevalence of 6.3%.The mean age of patients with hypoglycaemia was 3.69 years while that without hypoglycaemia was 4.05 years.Severe malaria, sepsis and severe acute malnutrition are the most common diseases associated with hypoglycaemia. Hypoglycaemia was found to be significantly associated with mortality (p= 0.001).Conclusion:  Hypoglycaemia was found to complicate many childhood diseases, and it contributes to childhood mortality significantly in paediatric emergency care setting.

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