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Volume 8 Issue 1

S.No. Title & Authors Page No View
1

Title : Synthesis, Characterization and Antibacterial Activity of Copper (II) Complex with a Schiff Base Derived From Acetylacetone and Aniline as Ligand

Authors : Nasiru Yahaya Pindiga, Abubakar Adamu

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The Schiff base (L1) and  its copper(II) complex (Cu(L1)2) were synthesized with the percentage yield of  86.96% and 70.65%  respectively and  characterized by solubility, molar conductivity melting point, UV-Visible spectrometry,  FTIR Spectroscopy and Thin Layer Chromatography (TLC). Agar well diffusion method was adopted for the susceptibility testing.  The physical characterization of the synthesized ligand L1 and its copper complex Cu(L1)2 indicates that, both Cu(L1)2 and L1 are non-electrolytic compounds with molar conductivity of  0.00 µS.  Cu(L1)2 and L1  are stable to heat with melting point of  2280C and 1880C respectively. Both Cu(L1)2 and L1 are crystalline  and possess black and yellow colour respectively. The complex (Cu(L1)2)  is insoluble in water and  in polar organic solvent but soluble in non-polar solvent  (chloroform) while the ligand L1 is insoluble in water but soluble in polar organic solvent (methanol, ethanol, petroleum ether etc).  UV-visible spectroscopy of the complex (Cu(L1)2) and  ligand ( L1) shows a λmax(nm) of 203 and 2010 respectively. FTIR spectroscopy indicate the present of νM-O, v(M-N) and v(-HC=N , νC=O, νC=C, CH3 str. and νC-H ) bonds in the synthesized complex and the absence of νM-O, and  v(M-N) bonds in the ligand. The metals ligands bonds ν(M-O) and v(M-N)  indicate the formation of a complex. The carbon-nitrogen double bond v(-C=N) indicate the formation of  the Schiff base. Gentamicin (10 µg/disc) was used as control. Copper(II) Complex of  the Schiff  base was found to posses significant antimicrobial activity on the tested microorganisms (Pseudomonas aeruginosa,  Klebsiella pneumonia, Bacillus aerius and E.coli. The ligand and the solvent (DMSO) indicate non antimicrobial property when subjected to same organisms.

01-07
2

Title : The Socio-Economic Characteristics of Tax Payers in Informal Sector in Kwara Central Senatorial District

Authors : Ojerheghan G., Fajimi A., Salifu F., Martins J., Shaba N., Titiloye O., Sobayo O.

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This paper reviews the socio-economic characteristics of tax payers in the Informal Sector of Kwara Central Senatorial District. In this study, we considered the ages, educational qualifications, taxes paid, daily sales, ownership of bank accounts, tribes and genders of tax payers whose trades are artisans or markets or microbusinesses living in Kwara Central Senatorial District. A descriptive research design was used to collect data from 2,276 Informal Sector traders in 2019; the data were analyzed using the statistical tools such as frequencies, tables and bar charts; which revealed that the sector is dominated by young, well educated, Yoruba females whose trades are microbusinesses. Obtaining a clear understanding of these characteristics, taxation of the informal economy will be seamless for government and convenient for the tax payers. Government policies which may include skill acquisitions with starter packs; creating enablers such as constant electricity, social security; tax credits, statutory discussion forum, among others; will encourage quasi-voluntary tax compliance that will transform the sector to a formal type in the District.

08-16
3

Title : Geospatial Mapping of Urban Flood-Prone Areas in Port Harcourt Metropolis: Implications for Effective Urban Physical Planning in Nigeria

Authors : Collins H. Wizor, Gbenekanu L. Mpigi

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This study demonstrates the capability of geographic information system technology in the identification and mapping of urban flood-prone areas in Port Harcourt metropolis, Nigeria. The primary source of data for the study is the use of Global Positioning System (GPS) to generate coordinates for the urban flood-prone areas in the study area. ArcGIS software and Kenson electronic measuring wheel were used to determine the extent of the various urban flood-prone areas while the standard height meter rule was used to determine the depth of the flood in the identified urban areas. The reconnaissance survey was done in June 2019 while the actual study was carried out between July and September 2019. Based on the depths and extent of floodwater in the identified urban flood-prone areas, three (3) different areas in the metropolis were classified into lowly, moderately and highly flooded areas. The study revealed Twenty-five (25) urban flood-prone areas in the metropolis, out of which eight (8) are lowly flooded, nine (9) are moderately flooded and eight (8) are highly flooded. The results show details of geographic coordinates of the lowly, moderately and highly flooded areas and three (3) geo-referenced maps showing the three categories of urban flood-prone areas in Port Harcourt metropolis. The results of the study revealed that all the identified lowly flooded, moderately flooded and highly flooded areas of Port Harcourt metropolis are completely built up with high population concentration which brings to the fore, the need for effective urban physical planning in Port Harcourt metropolis and other high-density cities of the global south. The study further recommends that present and future urban developers in the metropolis should adhere strictly to municipal development control decisions as regards plans and site approval. It also suggests the demolition of properties on natural and man-made drainage channels in the study area.

17-25
4

Title : Trade Tariffs and Selected Macroeconomic Indicators of Performance in Nigeria, 1980 - 2018

Authors : Akeeb Olusholaoladele, Emmanuel Uzoma Makwe, Ernest Tubolayefa

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this study was undertaken to examine the impact of trade tariffs on selectedmacroeconomic variables in Nigeria, 1980-2018. The researcher used three models, three dependent and three independent variables to determine the extent of this impact. Secondary data time series obtained from the CBN statistical bulletins was used. The variables considered were customs duty, balance of payments, gross domestic products (GDP), value added tax (VAT), petroleum income tax (PIT), and unemployment (UNEM) of Nigeria over the period. OLS regression methodology using the ARDL was employed as estimation technique at 5% level of significance. ADF was used to estimate the unit root tests while bounds test for co-integration analysis was used to estimate the long-run relation of the variables. Error Correction Mechanism was used to correct the short term errors of the analysis. It was shown that while some of the variables have positive and significant effects on the dependent variables, other do not. It was, therefore recommended that government authorities must properly target tariffs, value added tax (VAT) and petroleum income tax (PIT) to achieve their aims and not to indiscriminately manipulate them for no justifiable reasons.

26-37
5

Title : Methodological Trends in Science Education and Curriculum Studies Research in the University of Port Harcourt; 2005 - 2015

Authors : Dr. Chris Agwu, Dr. Ofonime F. Ndioho

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This study analysed the methodological trends in Education science and Curriculum studies Ph.D. dissertations undertaken in the Department of Curriculum Studies and Educational Technology, Faculty of Education of the University of Port Harcourt from 2005 to 2015. It was revealed that 74.1% of the curriculum and education science studies undertaken in the department adopted the experimental research design. The simple random sampling technique was applied in 46.1% of the studies. Achievement tests were used to collect data in 61.3% of the studies while ANOVA, ANCOVA, t – test and the descriptive method were variously applied in the analysis of data. It was concluded that the Department of Curriculum Studies and Educational Technology of the University of Port Harcourt is duly poised to contribute to the technological development of the country through educational intervention projects. The study is then recommended to policy makers in the field of education science and curriculum studies.

38-43
6

Title : An Experimental Approach to Low Cost, High-Performance Surfactant Flooding

Authors : A. A. Obuebite, M. Onyekonwu, O. Akaranta

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Surfactant flooding plays a key role in chemical enhanced oil recovery due to its ability to reduce interfacial tension between the aqueous and oleic phases, thereby mobilizing the trapped oil droplets into a flowing oil bank which invariably reduces the amount of residual oil saturation thus accounting for additional oil recovery of about 20%.  However, the cost of surfactant chemicals has made surfactant flooding less attractive. Interestingly, recent experimental studies have reported that certain local materials capable of acting as surface active agents can effectively recover residual oil. This has attracted more interest due to their low cost, availability and eco- friendly nature. This paper reviews the oil displacement efficiency of different local surfactants in comparison with synthetic surfactant.Commonly used synthetic surfactant, Sodium dodecyl sulphate (SDS) and three different local surfactants namely AlkaSurf X (a plant extract), Palm kernel oil (Elaeis guineensis) and Moringa leaf (Moringa oleifera) was evaluated in the laboratory using various concentration in a bid to compare their performance. To simulate actual formation brine, brine samples were prepared in the laboratory using sodium chloride and potassium chloride with Total Dissolved Solids (TDS) of 30000ppm. Critical Micelle Concentration (CMC) was calculated to ascertain the right concentration to flood with. Sandstone oil displacement experiments using core plugs with porosity values ranging from 22%-23% was carried out on medium crude oil to ascertain the effectiveness of the selected local surfactants in recovering oil. Results showed high compatibility of the brine with all the selected local surfactants. As the brine salinity increased, the pH of the surfactant concentration increased. In line with the results obtained from the CMC plot, the synthetic surfactant performed best at 0.2wt.% while the local surfactants performed best at a higher concentration of 0.4wt%. Of the three local surfactants, AlkaSurf X gave the highest additional recovery of 22.7%OOIP while the synthetic surfactant gave an additional recovery of 20%OOIP.This study underpins the oil displacement efficiency of these local surfactants. Moreover, AlkasurfX can be replaced with synthetic surfactant Sodium dodecyl sulphate (SDS) due to its availability, performance and reduced cost.

44-50
7

Title : Characterization of Aquifer Parameters from Pumping Test Data in Part of Mubi Adamawa State - Nigeria

Authors : Lazarus G. Ndatuwong, Kasidi Simon

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Hydrogeological parameters in part of crystalline basement rock terrain were characterized using pumping test data. Five boreholes were used in this study for the evaluation of transmissivity (T), hydraulic conductivity (K) and specific capacity (Sc) of the study area. The transmissivity values obtained from the five boreholes shows that the aquifer potentiality of the study area varies from weak to high potential with an average value of 209.21m2/day, which signifies a moderate aquifer potential condition for the study area. The values of the hydraulic conductivity obtained shows that the aquifer is typical of clean sand (fine and coarse) and gravels. The result of the specific capacity obtained from the present study show that the aquifer in the study area is an unconfined aquifer.

51-53
8

Title : The Effect of Periwinkle Shell Ash (PSA) Blended With Cement on the Compressive and Abrasive Properties of Lateritic Block

Authors : Antia Mfon Ekanem, Ajiero Ikenna Reginald, Ulaeto Nsikak William

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The study seeks to investigate the effect of Periwinkle Shell Ash (PSA) blended with cement on the compressive and abrasive properties of lateritic block.  In order to determine the suitability of materials for block making, tests like sedimentation test, standard proctor test, Atterberg’s limit test, smell and Nibble tests were carried out on the laterite. Also specific gravity of PSA, bulk density and porosity of PSA were carried out. 5% of the binder and percentage replacement levels of 0%, 10%, 20%, 30%, 40% and 50% of cement with PSA were used for block production. 210 mm X 100 mm X 100 mm blocks were cast; cured and subjected to compressive strength and abrasive strength test. Data were collected, presented and analysed using graphs, correlation and regression methods of analysis. Result shows that the compressive strength values obtained from 0% to 30% replacement at the 28th day were high (4.52N/mm2, 4.02N/mm2, 3.49N/mm2 and 2.56N/mm2 for 0%, 10%, 20% and 30% replacement respectively). A gradual increase in strength of the blocks was also observed as the curing age increased. At 10% replacement for instance the compressive strength at 7th, 14th and 28th days were 14N/mm2, 2.81 N/ mm2 and 4.02N/ mm2. The abrasive coefficient of the lateritic block was calculated as a percentage of the sandcrete block of mix 1:6. The abrasive coefficient reduces as the percentage replacement increases. For instance, at 0% replacement it was 73, reduces to 64 at 10%, 59 at 20% and 51 at 30% replacement of cement with PSA. Beyond 30% the abrasive coefficient was below recommended values.

54-59
9

Title : Assessment of Water Quality of Some Private Borehole in Port Harcourt, Rivers State Case Study, Diobu Community.

Authors : Odunze Wisdom C.N., Nwachukwu Chinonso

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This study investigated the assessment of water quality of some private borehole in Port Harcourt metropolis case study Diobu Community. Four research questions and four hypotheses guided the study.

The related literature review was done under the theoretical/conceptual, empirical studies and summary which identified the assessment of water quality of some private borehole in Port Harcourt metropolis. Descriptive survey research design was adopted for the study.

A 40- item structured questionnaire development by the research was used. Questionnaire was used for data collection, Descriptive statistic of mean and standard deviation were used to answer the research question while chi-square was used to test the hypotheses at 005 level of significance. The finding indicated that there is no significant mean difference in the causes of water contamination of private borehole in port Harcourt metropolises. The study revealed that the ground water pollution causes contamination of water in private borehole. Some  private borehole owner in Diobu community do not test the quality of their boreholes. It is re-commended that standard measures should be taken by the appropriate authorities to ensure proper treatment of the water to safeguard the health of the innocent consumers.

60-68
10

Title : Cross-Border Trafficking Of Women In The Face Of Displacements in West Africa

Authors : Dr. Temitope Francis Abiodun, Adebola F. Akinlawon, Abah Ogechi, Oluwatoyin J. Ajayi, Chris Chukwuka Isika, Shola Alamu, Enitan Familuyi, Ekanem Mbuotidem Monday

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Cross-border trafficking of women during displacements or unrests in West African region has become one of the most vicious abuses of human rights. But it is very hard to fathom the extent of the concept as trafficking across the boundary which is closely related to kidnapping and abduction and prostitution and even though all these can exist also independent of trafficking. However, the outcome of any unethical practice can never be positive and fruitful to the national interest. The evil of trafficking in women when they get displaced as a result of conflict, war and insurgency has become a parasite that is being housed in our body and has so far resulted to both a human rights and developmental issue with listed consequences inimical to humanity. According to a new report from the United Nations Office on Drugs and Crime (UNODC), the vast majority of all cross-border trafficking victims are women and girls. The women are, however, trafficked into prostitution, exploitative labour, including work as porters, and sex slaves. According to this study, it is estimated that 62 per cent of cross-border trafficking victims are women kidnapped and abducted during displacements and conflicts in the society, but female children account for 28 per cent and 10 per cent in West African sub-region. This paper has endeavoured to analyze the nature, causes, modes and volume of women trafficked across borders in Africa during war, conflicts and displacements in West Africa. The paper points out the need to evolve a multidimensional approach and focuses attention on structural factors of trafficking and to recommend effective suggestions to combat the social menace.

 

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11

Title : Influence of Geographical Location on the Occurrence of Domestic Violence among Women in Ekiti State, Nigeria

Authors : Eloh Modupe Mary, Akindutire Isaac Olusola

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This study investigated domestic violence and assessed the influence ofgeographical location on the occurrence of domestic violence among women in Ekiti State, whichmight assist policy makers in the health and education sectors to embark on awareness programs thatcan be helpful in reduction of cases of domestic violence in Ekiti State.  The descriptive research design of the survey type was adopted for this study. The sample consisted of 2100 women in Ekiti State. The sample was selected through Multistage sampling procedure. An adapted close-ended questionnaire was used to measure the variables investigated. Face and content validity of the instrument were ensured by the supervisor and other experts in Health Education and Tests and Measurement. Reliability of the instrument was ensured by having one shot test on respondents who were not part of the sample. The data collected was analysed using Crobach’s alpha and a coefficientof 0.85 was obtained. The instrument was administered on the respondents in their place of residence by the researcher and twelve research assistants. The research question was answered with descriptive statistics of frequency counts, percentage, mean and bar chart. Hypothesis was tested at 0.05 level of significance using t-test. The findings of this study showed that 37.9% of the women experienced physical violence, 40.8% experienced sexual violence and 43% experienced psychological violence in Ekiti State. Geographical location significantly influenced the occurrence of domestic violence among women in Ekiti Statetcal(2.851) .

Based on findings of this study, it was recommended that enlightenment programmes which might promote social and supportive environments that are intolerant towards domestic violence should be organized periodically especially in rural communities.

77-80
12

Title : Synthesis, Characterization and Evaluation of Antimicrobial Potency of Fe(II), Mn(II), Cu(II), Co(II) and Zn(II) ion Complexes with Erythromycin and p.toluidine

Authors : Nnamani Johnson Onuorah, Nasiru Pindiga Yahaya, Wilson.L. Danbature, Muhammad Mukhtar Sani

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Fe(II), Mn(II), Zn(II), Co(II) and Cu(II) complexes of erythromycin and p.toluidine were synthesized and characterized by different physico-chemical techniques. The metal (II) complexes were characterized by solubility testing, melting point, molar conductance, UV-Vis and FTIR spectral studies. The HL ligand (erythromycin.p.toluidine) and the metal complexes showed various shades of colours ranging from cream, dark green, yellow ochre, grey ash, light green and pale green. The percentage yield of the mixed ligand and the complexes are in the range of 72-79%. The melting point of the ligand is 1900C while that of the complexes ranges from 200 -2300C.  The values of molar conductance of erythromycin.p.toluidine and all the metal (II) complexes are in the range of 13.2 – 24 S.cm2 mol-1. These values indicate that they are all non-electrolytes.  The UV-Vis spectral studies have shown bathochromic shift in the metal (II) complexes of the ligand. The FT-IR spectral have shown that the Fe(II), Mn(II), Zn(II), Co(II) and Cu(II) ions coordinated to the erythromycin.p.toluidine through the v(C=N) and v(C=O)  at 1650 cm-1  and 1537cm1 respectively. The ability of these metal(II) complexes to inhibit the growth of disease causing organisms such as Staphylococcus aureus (Gram positive bacteria), E.coli, Klesiella pneumonia, Salmonella typhi (Gram negative bacteria) and Aspergillus niger and Candida albicans (Fungi isolates) were compared with the standard drugs (erythromycin and fungusol) respectively. The results of antimicrobial activity have revealed that most of the complexes are more potent against the isolated microbes as compared to the standard drugs.

81-87
13

Title : Assessment of Reading Intervention Effect on Reading Culture Orientation among Senior Secondary School Students in Ondo State

Authors : Adediwura Adelekun, Tinuola Oluwarotimi Adelekun

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This study examined effect of reading intervention on reading culture orientation among senior secondary school students in Ondo State. This was with a view to providing information on the students’ status of reading culture by investigating students’ reading habit, interest in reading and assessing students’ improvement on reading culture.The study adopted the quasi-experiment research design. The populationcomprised all the senior secondary school students in Ondo State. The sample of 146 students were selected using stratified random sampling technique to select two Local Government Areas (Ondo-West and Ondo-East LGAs). A mixed school was randomly selected at the extreme end of each LGA. Seventy SSII students were purposively selected because the researcher needs to know and set out to find students who will provide the information by virtue of experience in school “A” (Experimental Group) and seventy-six SSII students were also randomly selected in school “B” (Control Group). One intervention implemented extensive reading and received talk on importance of good reading culture (Experimental group) and the other had direct instruction (Control group). A questionnaire was administered at the beginning and at the end of the term.  The data collected were analyzed using descriptive statistics and t-test.

The results showed that there was a positive change in the participants’ reading habit, interest on reading culture and after orientation on reading culture there exist positive intervention.

The study concluded that reading culture in terms of students’ reading habit, interest on reading culture were poor and the improvement of students reading culture reflected positively in the study after the intervention and this portrayed better outcome.

 

88-93
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