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Volume 7 Issue 5

S.No. Title & Authors Page No View
1

Title : Entrepreneurial Education as a Paradigm for Educational Administration in Nigeria

Authors : Dr. Audu Godwin Ankeli, Dr. Akor Abbah Innocent

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The need for educational administration in Nigeria to leverage on the dynamism of entrepreneurial education in our collective bid for socio-economic development can hardly be over stated. Entrepreneurial skills are needed in the real sector, for growth to be sustainable and measureable. This fact is aptly recognised by the government in the introduction of entrepreneurial studies in tertiary institutions across Nigeria. The paper explores valid skills that can be picked up by learners and practitioners of education as they studiously desire self-reliance. Also enunciated are strategies for re-designing entrepreneurial education with a view to producing better quality graduates who can dare the monstrous phenomenon of unemployment, acute poverty and foreign dependence. Furthermore, a model has been provided depicting the role educational administration plays in fostering a dependable entrepreneurial education    Not only have strategies for effectiveness in the teaching of entrepreneurial education been suggested, the paper has outlined recommendations that can be adopted to make the field better poised to deliver on the stated objectives.

01-04
2

Title : Effects of Socioeconomic Status of Parents on the Academic Performance of Senior Secondary School Students in Agricultural Science in Taraba State, Nigeria

Authors : Harrison Gideon Maghra, Anthony Galadima, Melaye Oni Rufus

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The study examined the effects of socioeconomic status of parents on the academic performance of students in government secondary schools in Taraba State. Survey research design was used for the study. Three objectives guided the study, which were translated into three research questions and then three hypotheses respectively. The population of the study was 246,785 students. A stratified random sampling technique using Taro Yamane formula was used to obtain a sample of 400 students. The study collected data using structured questionnaire tagged: Effects of Socioeconomic status of parents on students’ achievement questionnaire (ESESPOSA Q). The instrument was subjected to face and content validity by four experts. Mean and standard deviation were used to answer the research questions while Chi – Square was used to test the hypotheses at 0.05 level of significance. The results revealed that father and mother’s educational level influence the academic performance of students and family income has influence on the academic performance of students. The study recommended that government should embark on economic empowerment programmes to enhance parents’ income, government should establish skills acquisition centres so that parents may have adequate skills that will enable them to be self-reliant and poor students should be given scholarship.

06-10
3

Title : Soil and Leachate Quality Aspects of Ariaria Market Dumpsite Aba Southeast Nigeria

Authors : Akhionbare S.M.O, Okoro Iheanyi Ikechi

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The heavy metal characteristics of soils and the physicochemical parameters of the leachate of a municipal solid waste dumpsite in Ariara, Aba, southeastern Nigeria were investigated for possible pollution impacts. Soil samples were collected in three replicates from three sampling points within the dumpsite and a control located about 150m at three horizons at 0–15, 15–30 and 30–45cm depths. Leachate samples were also collected and tested for qualities using standard methods. Descriptive statistics, Pearson correlation and geochemical index were used to analyze data at P<0.05 and 0.01. As, Pb, Cu, Zn, Cr and Cd ranged as follows: (4.15–5.38mg/kg), (73.4–93.8mg/kg), (122.5–141.0mg/kg), (180.4–232.2mg/kg), (61.1–76.5mg/kg) and (25.8–44.0mg/kg) while pH, EC, COD, BOD and TDS from the leachate averaged 8.1±0.81, 1763.3±154.4mg/l, 1383.1±148.2mg/l, 123.4±20.6mg/l and 2.43x106±3.57x105mg/l respectively. Means for Sulphate (163.5±13.1mg/l), Chloride (1231.8±67.22mg/l), Nitrate (82.1±12.2mg/l), Coliform count (225.0±15.0cfu/ml) and Faecal coliform (160.3±4.5cfu/ml) all recorded elevated values in the leachate.  Mean sand and clay compositions were (54.6± 1.57%), (21.5±5.92%) and (23.8± 0.48%) respectively. There were significantly higher concentrations of Pb, Cu, Zn, Cr and Cd at the dumpsite than control location at P<0.05, with their levels exceeding the background levels in mineral soils. At 0.01 confidence limit pH recorded significant negative correlation with all the heavy metals; whereas clay showed significant negative correlation with Zn (r=-0.486*) and Cd (r=-0.476*). Cd, Cr and Pb recorded high geoaccumulation index value and the order of heavy metal enrichment was Cd>Cr> Cu >Pb>As>Zn. The subsoil (16–45cm) recorded the highest geoaccumulation index making it the most affected of the depths investigated; which is attributed to high precipitation in the area causing leaching. The high porous sand compositions, high heavy metal levels and microbial abundance, as well as low clay compositions recorded in the study could make groundwater aquifers of the study area susceptible to pollution from the dumpsite origin. Both Federal and state government should be committed to stipulated environmental standard as enshrined in our laws.

11-18
4

Title : Removal of Phenol and Selected Anions from Refinery Wastewater Using Activated Carbon from Selected Agrowastes

Authors : Okereke J. N., Iloegbunam C. A.

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Refinery wastewater was treated with activated carbon from rice husk (ARH) and corn cob (ACC) using batch method. Agrowastes were carbonized at 600oC and chemically activated, using phosphoric acid (H3PO4) and used as adsorbents. Titrimetric and spectrophotometeric methods were adopted for the determination of phenol, and some anions (Phosphate, Nitrate – Nitrogen, Sulphate and pH) of refinery wastewater. Readings after treatment with the adsorbents were also recorded and the efficiencies of the adsorbents compared, to ascertain the dose at which purification was best achieved. Initial phenol concentration of 315.9 mg/l was reduced to 159.0±48.0 - 276.5±46.0 mg/l (ARH), 154.7±50,0 - 260.2±53.0 mg/l (ACC) and 132.5±21.0 - 201.9±1.0 mg/l (ARH + ACC). The efficiencies of the activated carbon were of the order: Rice husk + corn cob > rice husk > corn cob, while the corresponding dose efficiencies was: 15g >10g > 5g. The highest adsorption efficiency observed for anions were COD (49.15% by corn cob), BOD, (49.4% by corn cob), phosphate, (68.18% by Rice husk + corn cob), nitrate (70.68% by rice husk) and sulphate (56.68% by corn cob). Efficiency removal was in this order: Rice husk + corn cob > corn cob > rice husk and 15g >10g > 5g for the dosage. There was significant difference (p≤0.05) between the untreated and the treated refinery wastewater samples and a significant difference also exists between the adsorbents. Findings herein showed that activated rice husks and corn cobs are effective in adsorbing phenol and selected anions in refinery wastewater.      

19-25
5

Title : Evaluation of Selected Internship Factors on Mastery of Soft Skills among Interns: Evidence from Nakuru County Government, Kenya

Authors : Changwony Jepkorir Purity, Dr. Maina Waiganjo, Dr.Simon Kipchumba

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26-37
6

Title : Effect of Managers Emotional Intelligence on Performance of Small and Micro - Enterprises in Nakuru East Sub-County, Kenya

Authors : Penina Mwikali Muthembwa, Dr. Maina Waiganjo, Dr. Njenga Gitahi

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Small and micro enterprises (SMEs) have strong influence on the economies of many countries. In Kenya, SMEs play a key role in economic development including job creation. In 2014, eighty percent (80%) of jobs created were dominated by these enterprises. SMEs are the core business units in Kenya, however many of them do not progress to maturity implying poor performance. Performance of any organization is dependent on the competence of its leaders or managers. Studies that have sought to investigate the link between managerial capacities and performance have largely focused on their knowledge and technical skills and the impact of emotional intelligence on the performance of managers with regard to SME’s in Kenya has remained unknown. This study thus sought to investigate effects of emotional intelligence of managers on performance of SMEs in Nakuru East Sub-County, Kenya. This study was anchored on the Mixed Model Approach of Emotional Intelligence which is pegged on five dimensions: Self-Awareness, Self-Regulation, Self-Motivation, Social Awareness and Social Skills. The researcher used descriptive design to carry out the study. This study targeted SME’s conducting their businesses in Nakuru, East Sub-County, Kenya. The target population was 800 small and micro-sized enterprises’ in Nakuru East Sub-County, Systematic random sampling technique was used to obtain a representative sample of 131 managers of SME’s. A structured questionnaire was used to obtain primary data from the respondents. A pilot study of twelve SMEs in Free Area, in Nakuru East Sub-County, was carried out to determinereliability of the instrument and Cronbach Alpha was computed. Statistical Package for Social Science (SPSS) was used to aid in the data analysis process. Frequencies and percentages were used to describe characteristics of the sample while the chi-square test of association and goodness of fit were used to establish associations and differences respectively. A multiple linear regression analysis between the five dimensions of entrepreneurs’ emotional intelligence and SME performance was carried out. The computed Cronbach‟s alpha coefficient was found to be 0.799 for self-awareness, 0.776 for self-regulation, 0.813 for self-motivation, 0.756 for social awareness, 0.844 for social skills, 0.787 for SMEs performance and 0.814 for the overall questionnaire. The results show that managers of SMEs have high levels of emotional intelligence and that emotional intelligence has a significant impact on SME performance. The findings of the revealed that 15.8% of variation in SMEs performance was explained by Self-Awareness score showing that there is a significant effect of self-awareness on SMEs performance. The study also found that 17.5% of variation in SMEs performance was explained by Self-Regulation score and thus there is a significant effect of Self-Regulation on SMEs performance. About 11.9% of variation in SMEs performance was explained by Self-Motivation score suggesting that there is a significant effect of Self-Motivation on SMEs performance. Further, 12.8% of the variation in SMEs performance was explained by Social Awareness and thus there is a significant effect of Social Awareness on SMEs performance. Finally, the study found that 20% variation in SMEs performance was explained by Social Skills score. Thus there is significant effect of Social Skills on SMEs performance. The main conclusions of the study are that self-awareness, self-regulation, self-motivation, social awareness and social skills have a significant impact on the performance of SME.  The study recommends that efforts be made to increase managers’ levels of emotional intelligence, in particular with a focus on social skills. This can be through sensitization campaigns and encouragement to join groups/association.

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7

Title : Influence of Strategic Technology on Service Delivery in Public Service: A Case Study of Directorate of Immigration and Registration of Persons

Authors : Thomas Ondora Omboti, Ronald Chepkilot, John Kipkorir Tanui

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Service delivery is the main mandate of the public sector and efficiency is critical to service delivery.  However, the public sector has experienced several challenges in service delivery provision that impact the quality, timeliness and costs of these services. In the Directorate of Immigration and Registration of Persons (DIRP),consequences for poor service delivery includes lack of adequate access to documents such as national identity cards, birth and death certificates. Consequently, the public sector in Kenya has been making substantial investment in strategic technology to improve its service delivery capability. However, how this strategic technology improves service delivery function remains a key question given the challenges the DIRP. This study, therefore, sought to examine the influence of application of strategic technology on service delivery at DIRP. Amongst the aspects of strategic technology that were examined include the influences of records management aspects and proficiency of technology usage on service delivery. This study used correlation research design and targeted the DIRP in Nairobi National Headquarters. The accessible population comprised all the 1059 employees of the directorate working at the head office distributed amongst diverse service departments. From these, Nassiuma’s formula was applied to obtain a sample size of 91 respondents. This study used proportionate stratified sampling method. They used copies of a pre-tested structured questionnaire to collect data. Data was analyzed using t-test, f-test, chi squares, correlations and multiple linear regressions. From the observations of findings, it was evident that that use of strategic technology had enhanced records management at the DIRP. In relation to Proficiency of Strategic Technology Usage, the study established that there was a significant correlation between proficiency of strategic technology usage and service delivery in the Directorate of Immigration. The study, therefore, recommends that the protocols for retrieval of information through the use of digital record management systems should be made easy for the staffs in the Directorate. The management of the Directorate should also put more emphasis on skills upgrading through trainings and workshops to ensure that skills transfer happen rapidly and that emerging issues and challenges are broadly addressed at this point.

47-56
8

Title : Analysis of Impact of Mathematics Courses though in Federal Polytechnics on Newly Admitted Students in North Eastern Nigeria

Authors : Mohammed Usman

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This research work compared Students’ performance in Mathematicsin Senior School Certificate Examination (SSCE) to that of their Mathematicscourses though in first semester ND I from Federal Polytechnics in North Eastern state of Nigeria. Samples of Students’ SSCE grade together with their corresponding ND I grade point (GP) were drawn from the files and record of the selected Student using simple random sampling.The information were collected from four (4) Federal Polytechnics, and the average of their GPs was taken and the SSCE grades were converted to GP equivalent to that of ND.Pearson correlation coefficient was employed to the data, and the result shows a very weak relationship of r = 0.0375 between their two grade points. This indicates that some students’ resultsdoesnot correlate with their performance in ND Mathematics courses.The study also revealed that, there is significant differences in their performance based on z-test for two sample means. Outcome of the analysis may serve as yard stick to stakeholders to investigate further on how student write their SSCE or ND examinations in our various Institutions.Appropriate recommendation was made based on the result of the research work.

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9

Title : Sustainability of the Environment: The Impact of Recycling in Obio-Akpor Local Government Area in Rivers State

Authors : Odunze Wisdom C.N., Nwikpo Joy Legborsi

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Recycling is greatly felt on both Local and National scale in Nigeria as a central aspect in sustainability and mainly as pro-environmental consumer behavior. The paper assesses the impact of recycling in obio-Akpor local government area. Through my literature review and participant observation, Qualitative approach was used in data collection and stratified random sampling was used to select respondents. Random sampling was used to administer 203 questionnaires to the masses; Descriptive statistic was used to analyze the impact and benefit of recycling. The result indicates that recycling has significant impact on environmental sustainability in Obio-Akpor in Rivers State therefore requires an urgent need to educate the masses about mitigation strategies for sustainable development such as waste recycling, reduce, re-use materials to ensure that our environment is cleaner, healthier and a greener place to live. These strategies will help to guarantee a sustainable future where our economy can thrive and good health is fostered across every border.

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10

Title : An Evaluation of Influence of Leadership on Management of Strategic Organizational Change A Case Study of Nakuru County Government, Kenya

Authors : Ruttoh Fred Bore, Ronald Chepkilot, John Kipkorir Tanui

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Leadership has the ability to bring a vision into reality by making swift decisions and inspiring others. Leadership is guiding people and the company in the right direction through empowerment and inspiration, objectively enabling people to achieve organizational goals, whereas management is a set of processes that help the company to be reliable and efficient. This study sought to investigate the influence of leadership on strategic change in Nakuru county government. Specifically the study sought to determine establish the influence of leaderships’ communication and leaderships’ strategic direction on strategic change in Nakuru county government. The study was anchored on systems theory and strategic leadership theory. A descriptive research design was used for this study. The study targeted employees from several cadres in the county totalling to 1266. To come up with a sample of 304 respondents the study made use of proportionate stratified random sampling technique. Primary data was collected using a questionnaire as the main data collection instrument. The study generated both qualitative and quantitative data. Quantitative data was coded and entered into Statistical Packages for Social Scientists (SPSS) and analyzed using descriptive and inferential statistics. Qualitative data was analyzed based on the content of the responses. Karl Pearson’s coefficient of correlation and multiple regressions was used to establish the relationship between the independent variables and the dependent variables.  The study concluded that communication and strategic directionhad positive and statistically significant influence on the strategic change individually. The study recommended that the leadership had an influence on the strategic organizational change of the county government at Nakuru with communication, strategic direction, organizational culture and dynamics management had positive and significant influence on the strategic change individually. The study thus recommended that the county government of Nakuru should put emphasis on the leadership aspects at the country to influence the strategic change.

70-80
11

Title : Effects of Corruption Awareness and Government Regulations on Performance of Counties in Kenya

Authors : Rerimoi K. David, James Nganga

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County Governments have been facing a lot of challenges and accusation on loss of funds. Low awareness by communities and fund managers of their roles and responsibilities in the management of the funds has contributed to poor performance, and total failure in some cases. No mechanisms exist to deal with projects such as roads, water systems, agricultural projects and schools that may cut across constituencies entailing shared benefits. No clear mechanisms exist to avert duplication of functions and committees to vet how funds from the county government have been used. The study sought to establish the effects of corruption and government regulations on performance of counties. The study adopted a descriptive design and the population comprised of three counties where 190 respondents were targeted. Census was used and the study gathered both primary and secondary data. The collected data was analyzed and the findings presented using tables and figures. The study established that corruption have significant effect on performance of counties. The study concludes that corruption and financial literacy are key determinants of performance of counties. The study recommends that policy makers and agencies like the Ethics and Anti-Corruption Commission (EACC) should enhance its active role in fighting corruption among counties in Kenya. The judicial system in Kenya has an important role in fighting corruption as far as hearing and determination of the reported cases of corruption is concerned. All public servants including employees working in County governments should be sponsored to attend refresher sources in personal financial management so as to enhance their financial literacy.

81-87
12

Title : A Review Study of “Analytical Validation of Stability Indicating Reverse Phase - HPLC for Metformin Hydrochloride-Canagliflozin”

Authors : Devendra Singh Chahar, Dr. U S Sharma, Vimal Kumar Sharma

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A new method indicating RP-HPLC has been developed and validated for both Drug Metformin Hydrochloride and Canagliflozin in bulk and dosage forms. The method involves separation Agilent C18 (250x4.6mm) 5µ particle size. The optimized mobile phase consists of Potassium Dihydrogen Phosphate Buffer (pH 3.2 ± 0.1) and Acetonitrile (40:60 v/v) with a flow rate of 1ml/min and UV detection at 240 nm. Retention time was 2.209 min (Metformin Hydrochloride), 4.799 min (Canagliflozin). Linearity range was 100-500 ug/ml (Metformin Hydrochloride), 10-50ug/ml (Canagliflozin). Accuracy Precision was in the range for Metformin Hydrochloride and Canagliflozin. LOD and LOQ are 0.15ug/ml and 0.46 ug/ml for Metformin Hydrochloride, 0.19ug/ml and 0.58ug/ml for Canagliflozin. The method developed is more sensitive, accurate and precise than the methods reported earlier. Retention time and run time were also less and hence the method is economical.

88-94
13

Title : Perceived Relationship between Ethical Standards and Financial Reporting Quality in Rivers State

Authors : Obiaga Johnson Chinedu, Ikiriko Hope Odhuluma

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This paper delved into the link between ethical financial standards and financial reporting quality. Data were collected from 45 accountants in selected companies in Port Harcourt, Rivers State. The Pairwise correlation was applied to scrutinize the data. The outcomes disclosed that integrity and objectivity were positively and substantially related to timeliness and adequacyof financial reports. Based on the results of the study, it is recommended amongst others that engagement processes of firms should be enhanced so that men and women with top level of ethical standing would be appointed. Companies in Nigeria must provide principles and conformity unit to guide and supervise ethical application in their everyday tasks; companies reportage arrangement must follow closely the financial reporting structure disseminated by the International Financial Reporting Standards for healthier and more satisfactory financial reports; accountants as upholders of reliable financial reports must adhere to the principles of professional practice issued by the Institute of Chartered Accountants of Nigeria (ICAN), ACCA, CPA, ANAN for their everyday duties; and all the relevant professional accounting bodies in Nigeria should scrutinize the actions of their associates to certify that the rules of ethics are adhered to in the formulation of quality financial reports in the country.

95-100
14

Title : Durability Tests and Evaluation of Engineering-Geological Rock Materials within Some Locations at Southern Part of Lower Benue Trough as Construction Aggregates in Ebonyi State, Nigeria

Authors : Obarezi Jacob Ebe, Ugorji Humble Ihunanya, Ajah Ndubuisi

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Dated back since the history of civilization, Construction Engineers has solely depended on geological aggregate materials as one of the unavoidably important materials in construction technology. At the study area, there are many aggregate quarrying industries with different geological materials, being patronized by government, construction companies and individuals at this time of infrastructure development. Therefore, the need to know the durability strength of these various rock materials, since their lithology varies. This is important because, the suitability of aggregates for construction actually relies on its testing against national and international standards. Some of these rocks assessed belong to and are found in Asu River Group sediment and Amasiri Sandstone. The rock materials evaluated were from Pyroclastic rocks (Ezza-Agu Hill), Baked-Shale (Umuohara), Limestone (Ngbo), Limestone (Amasiri) and Granodiorite (Ishiagu). The Ngbo Limestone, Amasiri Limestone, Umuohara Baked-Shale, Ezza-Agu Pyroclastic rock and Ishiagu Granodiorite aggregates gave the following values: Aggregate crushing value (ACV) of  8%, 8.7%, 10%, 12%, and 14.2%. Flakiness Index (FI) values of 12.5%, 13.5%, 15%, 21%, and 19.6%. Aggregate Specific Gravity value of 2.6, 2.61, 2.63, 2.64 and 2.81. Water Absorption Value of 1.54%, 1.56%, 1.57%, 2.25% and 0.32%and Aggregate Abrasion Value (AAV) of 24%, 24.4%, 25%, 23% and 15% respectively. This result indicates that granodiorite aggregate gave the best value and should be used more preferably than the others especially in road construction. In addition, Pyroclastic rock aggregates is good while others are fairly within the required range and can be used for building construction and not road.

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15

Title : Prevalence of Pulmonary Mucormycosis among Poultry Farmers in Barkin Ladi Local Government Area of Plateau State

Authors : Dayok .O, Kum F. O., Zang B.N.

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This research titled Incidence of Pulmonary Mucormycosis among Poultry Farmers in BarkinLadi Local Government Area of Plateau State was aimed at determining the number of Poultry Farmers who are infected with pulmonary mucormycosis. Sputum from 100 Poultry Farmers was investigated by cultivation on Sabouraud’s Dextrose Agar containing antibiotics and examined for fungi. Fungal identification was carried out by direct microscopy and colony morphology using the Papanicolau stain, standard mycological stains and reagents. Consent was obtained from the participants and questionnaires were used to obtain their Bio-data. Statistical Packages for the Social Sciences (SPSS) version-25 software was used for Chi-Square and t-test analyses of the research findings. A total of 6 (6.0%) persons were infected with Mucor, other fungi were isolated in 14 (28%) of the farmers. Abnormal squamous epithelial cells were seen in 24 (48%) and inflammatory cells in 11 (22%) of farmers. Mucor was not isolated from the sputum of Persons with mean duration in years of poultry farming activities of 2.5 years and 6.5 years while those with 18.5 and 22.5 years had 2 (%) rate of infection each. Infection with mucor in relation to years of poultry farming was statistically significant, x2(5) = 16.31, p ≤ 0.05. There was however no significant difference in abnormal substances found in the sputum of males (M = 4.61, SD = 2.05) and the sputum obtained from females (M = 4.33, SD = 1.83); t (109) = 0.742, p = 0.460. There is need for farmers to regularly use face mask to avoid inhalation of dust. Environmental sanitation should be regularly carried out so as to reduce wastes which serve as breeding ground for fungi. There is also the need for Farmers to also engage in routine medical checkups.

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16

Title : Application of Heterotrophic Nitrifying Bacteria in Bioremediation of Heavy Metals

Authors : Nyoyoko Veronica Fabian, Anyanwu Chukwudi U, Dibua Esther

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the study was undertaken to investigate thebiosorption of the selected heavy metals by different nitrifying bacteria isolates.  Microbial growth was observed in terms of CFU and O.D. The samples was withdrawn at day’s interval, transferred to 10 ml vials and capped for AAS analysis.  Copper at concentration of 100ppm was bioaccumulated 90.1%, 90.04%, 86.9%, 89.62% after a period of 28 days by AOB 4, AOB 10; AOB 5; AOB 7 respectively. Nickel at concentration of 100ppm was bioaccumulated 96.51%, 94.67%, 97.74 %, 92.1% after a period of 28 days by AOB 4, AOB 10; AOB 5; AOB 7 respectively.  Lead at concentration of 100ppm was bioaccumulated 92%, 90.25%, 95.5 %, 95.05% after a period of 28 days by AOB 4, AOB 10; NOB 5; NOB 7 respectively.Cadmium at concentration of 100ppm was bioaccumulated 84.82 %, 89.21%, 86.95%, 86.07% after a period of 28 days by AOB 4, AOB 10; NOB 5; NOB 7 respectively. Achromobacterinsolitus (AOB 10) has the highest biosorption capacity of copper, bioaccumulated 90.04 % of copper after the period of 28 days. Alcaligenesfaecalis (NOB 5) has the highest biosorption capacity of nickel, bioaccumulated 97.74 % of nickel after the period of 28 days.  Alcaligenesfaecalis (NOB 5) has the highest biosorption capacity of lead, bioaccumulated 95.5 % of nickel after the period of 28 days. Achromobacterinsolitus (AOB 10) has the highest biosorption capacity of cadmium, bioaccumulated 89.21% of cadmium after the period of 28 days. The highest biosorption was carry out by Alcaligenesfaecalis (NOB 5) bioaccumulated 97.74 % of nickel and the lowest amongst biosorption was carry out by Achromobacterxylosoxidans (AOB 4) bioaccumulated 84.82 % of cadmium. Remediation of pollutant using microbial process (bioremediation) has proven effective and reliable due to its eco-friendly features.

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