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Volume 7 Issue 4

S.No. Title & Authors Page No View
1

Title : Influence of Employee Rewards on Transfer of Skills from Training to the Workplace in Kenyan State Corporations

Authors : Vincent Bosire Ochoi, Ronald Chepkilot, Charles Zakayo

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The study sought to assess the influence of employee rewards on transfer of skills from training to work in Kenyan state corporations. It was informed by the observation that a lot of resources are used to train public servants but the quality of services offered to the citizens has not significantly improved. The study adopted a descriptive study design. The target population for this study were all the employees of the 202 State Corporations in Kenya. The state corporations are categorized into 8 groups based on their different functions.From the 202 state corporations, the researcher sampled20 state corporations which forms 10%.The researcher further adopted stratified random sampling to get the sample size of State Corporation in each category. The 20 sampled state corporations had a total population of 40467. The sample size   was determined using Slovins’ formula to get 396 respondents for the study. Proportionate stratified sampling was used to get the sample size from each of the sampled state corporations. Data was collected by use of a structured questionnaire. The questionnaire was pilot tested on 38 respondents drawn from 2 state corporations. Data was analyzed using SPSS Version 24 to generate descriptive and inferential statistics and finally, data was presented with the help of frequency tables. Correlation analysis was used to test the direction of relationship between the independent and dependent variables. Regression analysis was used to test whether the independent variable have any influence on the dependent variable. The findings revealed that employee rewards have a significant influence on transfer of skills from training to work in Kenyan State Corporation. The study recommended that Kenyan state corporations come up with better reward systems to recognize the efforts put by employees who transfer training.

01-08
2

Title : Impact of External Debt on Economic Development in Nigeria from 2014 To 2018

Authors : Agwu Udoka charity, Ohaegbu Onuwabuchi Kingsley, Nnodim Chibeueze Zeribe

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This research work was aimed at ascertaining the impact of external debt on economic development of Nigeria. Ex-post facto research design was adopted for the study. While data on Gross Domestic Product (GDP), External Debt (EXDEBT), External Debt Service (EXDESERV) and exchange rate (EXCHARATE) were obtained from World Bank International Debt Statistics, Exchange Rate data were collected from Central Bank of Nigeria Statistical Bulletin, 2018. The study was analyzed using the statistical technique of multiple linear regressions to identify the impact of external debt on GDP for a period of five years the aid of SPSS version 22.0. The dependent variable was GDP, while the independent variables were External Debt, External Debt Service and Exchange Rate. It discovered that External Debt had a positive relationship with Gross Domestic Product, External Debt Service had negative relationship with Gross Domestic Product and Exchange Rate had a negative relationship with GDP. The study recommended amongst others, that the regulatory authorities (Debt Management Office) should set mechanism in motion to ensure that loans were utilized for purposes for which they were acquired as well as set a ceiling for borrowing for states and federal governments based on well-defined criteria. The government should equipped the necessary agencies in charge of the manufacturing sector to adopt a workable and implementing advanced technology in order to make our locally made goods attractive in the international market. Nigerian should also be encouraged to engage in exports business, discourage imports this will lead to a decline in the country’s demand for external debts. Thus, there must be vigorous promotion of the nation’s exports through reviving of agriculture and industrial sector that would absorb the shock in exchange rate even if left floating.

09-15
3

Title : Efficiency of Two Stage Stratified Sampling Procedure under Gamma Distribution

Authors : RAJI B.T, LAWAL I.O., OLAWUWO O.J.

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In this study, simple random sampling was used to select 4 primary units out of 8 primary units and 8 secondary units out of 20 secondary units using Fisher and Yates random number table. The population for this research study is sets of data simulated with R-package of a gamma distribution with different scales and each scale contains different shapes. The scales are used as the stratification variable for primary unit while the shape serves as the stratification variable for the secondary unit or sub-unit, samples from the data simulated were then taken and analyze for precisions.

16-22
4

Title : Impact of Corporate Social Responsibility on Organizational Performance of Quoted Firms - The Brewery Sector: Evidence of Nigerian Breweries PLC 2014 – 2018

Authors : Ohaegbu Onuwabuchi Kingsley, Okereke Samuel Ndubuisi, Ubochi, Emmanuel Edugwu

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This study investigated the effect of Corporate Social Responsibility on profit after tax of Nigerian Breweries plc from 2014 to 2018. The objective of this study is to ascertain the relationship between Corporate Social Responsibilities on profit after tax of Nigerian breweries plc. Data for the study was sourced secondarily, from Nigerian Breweries Plc and its annual reports and accounts. Hypotheses formulated in the study were tested using the multiple linear regressions statistical tool. Findings from the ANOVA revealed that the probability value of 0.557 was obtained implying that the regression model was insignificant in predicting the relationship between corporate social responsibility (CSR) and Profit After Tax (PAT) since it was greater than α =0.05. The R square was 0.794 which implies that Public Health Development (PHD), Public Education and Scholarship (PES) and Public Water Development (PWD) accounted 79.4% to the changes on profit after tax. Also, the study specifically found that Public Health Development (PHD) and Public Water Development (PWD) had a negative significance effect on Profit after Tax (PAT) while Public Education and Scholarship (PES) had positive relation and significant effect on Profit after Tax (PAT).

23-31
5

Title : Effects of Mobile Application Security Strategies on Privacy Invasion among Mobile Shop Operators in Nakuru East Sub-County, Kenya

Authors : Angela Wanjiku Kivindyo, Nelson Masese, John Kipkorir Tanui

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Privacy invasion is an offence perpetrated by availability, access, and use of advanced mobile devices when they land in the wrong hands of people who have the intention of infringing into the space of either organizations or individuals. There has been infringement of people’s rights by exposing their personal lives to third parties and the general public, a factor which is associated with detrimental effects, therefore the study sought to evaluate the effects of mobile application security strategies on privacy invasion with special focus on mobile shop operators within , Kenya, The study specifically sought to establish the effect of data encryption on privacy invasion and privacy settings on privacy invasion among mobile shop operators in Nakuru East Sub-County, Kenya. The study was guided by the Technology Acceptance Model and control theory of privacy. The study adopted a cross-sectional research design, and was carried out inNakuru East Sub-County. The units of observation were mobile shops withinNakuru East Sub-County, while the units of analysis were operators of mobile shops. According to Nakuru East Sub-County Business Register (2019), there are 221 mobile shops within Nakuru East Sub-County. The researcher purposively selected one respondent (Operators) from each of the 221 mobile shops therefore the study population had 221 respondents. Nassiuma’s (2000) formula was used to determine the sample size of 70 operators of mobile shops. The study used structured questionnaires to facilitate data collection. The pilot study was conducted in Eldoret town where questionnaires were issued out to 7 selected operators of mobile shops. The collected data was analyzed with the aid of the Statistical Package for Social Sciences. Descriptive statistics encompassing frequencies, percentages, means, standard deviations, and chi-square were used in the analysis. In addition, inferential statistics such as correlation and multiple regression analysis were used.  From the findings the researcher concluded that, mobile shopoperators in Nakuru East Sub-County always use specific keys on all the data that they save on their phones. From the findings the researcher concluded that, mobile phone operators in Nakuru East Sub-County have embraced most of the mobile application security strategies on their phones and thus, lowering the chances of becoming victims of privacy invasion.The study recommended that mobile shop operators within Nakuru East Sub-Countyshould adopt data encryption security because it allows protection of data that they do not want anyone else to have access to. The researcher also recommended that mobile should adopt privacy setting techniques.

32-38
6

Title : Agenda Setting and Educational Policy Implementation in Public Universities in Rivers State

Authors : Seimogha Rita Matthew Odou, Richard ANIETIE, Ehule George Ehulonu

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The study investigated agenda setting and educational policy implementation in public universities in Rivers State. Objectively, two research questions and two hypotheses were generated to guide the study. The population consist all the 2508 academic staff in all the public universities in Rivers State. Stratified random sampling technique was used to determine a sample of 344 academic staff. Among this, there were 186 (54%) academic staff from federal universities and 158(46%) respondents from state universities. In other to elicit information from the respondent, the researcher designed a research questionnaire tagged (AEPIQ), with a reliability coefficient of 0.78. Mean scores and standard deviation was used to answer the research questions, while z-test was used to analyze hypotheses. The study found out that policymakers’ gives out official information regarding the extent of policy implementation, educational policy makers make calculated attempt to provide the desired and much appropriate details on the educational policy that the media believes would meet their criteria for the content considered as a salient issue. The study also concluded that policymakers has the central role in providing a blueprint that gives a general directives to goal attainment and thus recommended that the media should be able to create the level of awareness that would ensure that the members of the public are fully aware of the level of educational policy implementation.

39-49
7

Title : The Impact of Intensive Care Change of System on Patients Outcome: Open versus Semi Close Intensive Care System

Authors : Rabiu MB, Ibrahim SA, Suleiman ZA

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Purpose of the study /Objective

The purpose of this study is to audit impact of Anesthesiologist on patient outcomes, the objective of this study is to evaluate the impact of change in system of ICU patient’s care on outcome.

Background

Abubakar Tafawa Balewa University Teaching Hospital since its establishment in 2010 operate two bed Intensive Care Unit (ICU). In 2017 following employment of consultant Anesthesiologist, the ICU care system was changed from open to semi-close Intensive Care System

Methods

Medical records of all consecutive patients admitted to the ICU from May 2016 to April 2017 (open system n = 76) and from May 2017 to April 2018 (Semi-close system n = 92) were reviewed. The variables studied were Mortality, ICU length of stay and incidence of acute kidney injury.

Results

Mortality was 56.6% in the open system group and 29.3% among the patients in the semi-close system group (p = 0.001). The length of ICU stay was 5.4±5 and 4.5± 4 days for open system  and semi-close system groups respectively, while the incidence of acute kidney injury among the open system group was 44.7% and 12% among the patients in the semi-open system group (p =0.001).

Conclusion

Results from this study revealed that, semi-close system care of critically ill patients is associated with lower mortality.

50-54
8

Title : Influence of Competitive Strategies on Firm Performance in the Telecommunication Industry: A Case Study of Telkom Kenya in Nakuru East Sub County

Authors : Paul Kipterer Chumba, Ronald Chepkilot, John Kipkorir Tanui

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Firm performance of the telecommunication companies is thus important in Kenya's context. However, comparing the firm performance of Telkom Kenya Limited with other mobile phone service providers, Telkom Kenya Limited has performed relatively low compared to its peers as evidenced by data from communication authority of Kenya.  Competitive strategies have been noted as key drivers of firm performance around the world. This study sought to examine the role of competitive strategies on the firm performance of Telkom Kenya. In particular, the study examined the influence of differentiation strategy and cost strategy on firm performance of Telkom in Nakuru. The study was guided byInstitutional Theory and Michael Porter Theory. This study utilized a correlational research design. The target population of this study is 56 Telkom Kenya staff involved in marketing, finance and operations aspects of the Telkom offices at Nakuru East Sub County. The study used the census method in selecting sample members. The sample size of the study is therefore 56 Telkom Kenya staff based in Nakuru East Sub County offices. The study used structured questionnaires for the purposes of the data collection process. A pilot study was undertaken in Naivasha offices of Telkom Kenya.  The validity of the instrument in this study was examined using the content validity of the instrument. Reliability of the research instrument in this study was examined using the Cronbach alpha coefficient. Data was coded into the SPSS software in preparation for data analysis. The data from the questionnaire was analysed using descriptive and inferential statistics. The statistics to be undertaken include frequencies, chi-square, and linear regression analysis.The results of this study indicate that a positive statistical significance relationship existed between differentiation and firm performance. In respect to the influence of the cost strategy on the firm performance, the results indicated that there was a positive and statistically significant relationship between cost strategy and firm performance.The study recommended that the competitive strategies such as focus strategy, differentiation strategy and cost strategy should be implemented continuously by the organization. The study further recommends that Telkom Kenya as a firm should place its emphasis on cost strategy as it had the most influence on the firm performance at the organization followed by focus strategy, and differentiation strategy respectively.

55-64
9

Title : Strategic Factors Influencing Transport and Distribution of Petroleum Products in Kenya: A Case Study of Kenya Pipeline Company

Authors : Keter Samson Kipkirui, Ronald Chepkilot, John Kipkorir Tanui

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The transport and distribution of the petroleum products by Kenya Pipeline Company is key in the social economic development of the country. Efficiency in the transport and distribution of the petroleum products ensures that the right volumes of the products are delivered, at the right price, and in a sustainable manner. This study sought to examine the extent to which strategic factors (infrastructure, information communication and technology information) affect transport and distribution of the petroleum products.  The study was anchored on resource-based theory and dynamic capabilities theory. The study adopted a descriptive research design. The target population was sourced from safety, security, maintenance, operations, Information Technology Support, senior management staff at Head Office, and Corporate Social Responsibility Staff. The study therefore used a target population of 234 staff members for the study. The sample size of the study was 148 respondents. The statistical analysis that was undertaken included the frequency distributions, chi square, correlation analysis and multiple linear regression analysis. From the finding the study concluded that there is a positive influence of infrastructure on the transport and distribution of petroleum products. In addition the study concluded there was a positive influence of ICT on transport and distribution of petroleum products at KPC.  The study recommended that all the strategic factors that is infrastructure, ICT, security, and pipeline capacity should be emphasized at Kenya Pipeline Company in order to improve on the performance of transport and distribution of the petroleum products.

65-73
10

Title : Constraints to Budget Implimentation in Nigeria

Authors : Nafisatu Kazeem, Nuhu James Bwala, Shizar Yusuf Dunga

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The stories of disparity between budget and its implementation in Nigerian public sector are replete in newspapers, public discourses and academic journals. Reasons advanced for this include: corruption, fluctuating oil revenue, unstable economic parameters and poor budget monitoring. The main objective of this paper was to examine the constraints to budget implementation. Relevant  literature review gave the research the conceptual frame work desired for the exercise. Data were collected through questionnaires and other secondary data source.  Chi-square was used in testing the hypotheses. Three hypotheses were set forth and tested using two ministries namely: education and finance in  Bauchi State of Nigeria. Thirty high ranking staff involved in budget preparation and implementation out of thirty-five administered with questionnaires responded to time. Using the students t-test, the first hypothesis (There is no significant relationship between corruption and budget implementation  ) it was discovered with t-cal. (3.41) greater than t-tab (1.679) corruption  always hinder budget implementation. The second hypothesis (ministries have no adequate measures to address budget variances), with t-cal. (3.497) greater than t-tab (1.699), the two ministries do not adequately monitor budget so as to achieve the expected goal. It can be concluded that reasons for budget implementation constraints can be explained outside those factors. The paper concludes by making recommendations to solve implementation constraints in government departments.

74-80
11

Title : Influence of Technological Change Management on Competitive Advantage of Tier 1 Commercial Banks In Nakuru, Kenya

Authors : Linda Matelong, Ronald Chepkilot, John Kipkorir Tanui

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Tier one commercial banks in Kenya operate under an extremely competitive environment in which there is competition for market share, customer numbers, loan clients, deposits and profitability levels. One of the strategies that have been adopted for the purposes of building competitive advantages is the adoption of new technologies. However, the manner in which change management is undertaken is critical in the commercial banks gaining competitive advantages given the context that these technologies are often similar across the banks.  This study therefore sought to examine the role of technological change management on the competitive advantage of tier one commercial banks This study sought examine the influence of mobile banking applications and electronic queue management system on competitive advantages of tier one commercial banks in Nakuru town. The study was guided by Technology Acceptance Theory. This study used descriptive research design targeting seven Tier 1 banks operating in Nakuru town from which the accessible population was their management teams from operations, IT and customer care service department. The study used a census approach and purposively selected the respondents.  The study used a pre-tested structured questionnaire to collect data for the study. Data was analyzed using both descriptive and inferential statistics. The findings revealed that mobile banking (β = 0.366, p ≤ 0.05) and electronic queue management (β = 0.382, p ≤ 0.05) were all significant factors to the competitive advantage of Tier 1 banks in the study area. The study, therefore, recommends that; the commercial banks should need to invest in the development of universal mobile phone applications, further there is need for system developers to further integrate the electronic queue management to the banking services, such as, mobile phone alerts. Finally, there is need for the banks to embark on an awareness campaign on the capability of the deposit taking ATMs.

81-89
12

Title : Influence of External Pressures on Competitiveness of Deposit Taking Sacco’s in Nakuru County, Kenya

Authors : Philemon Kipkoech Chebii, Ronald Chepkilot, John Kipkorir Tanui

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Savings and credit cooperatives play a very important role in uplifting the socio-economic wellbeing of thousands of Kenyans. These entities are expected to be highly competitive due to their reduced lending rates and ease of access of their services. However, a number of local Saccos have been outcompeted and outwitted to the extent of closing down their business. In light of this and in addition to scanty empirical evidence, this study sought to investigate the influence of external pressures on competitiveness of deposit-taking Saccos in Nakuru County, Kenya. Of specific interest was examining the extent to which regulatory and normative pressures influenced the aforesaid competitiveness. The study was guided by Regulation and Normative theories. The study adopted a descriptive research design and employed quantitative approach. A total of 176 staff working with deposit-taking Saccos in Nakuru County constituted the study population. Stratified random sampling technique was employed to draw respondents from the accessible population. A structured questionnaire was used in collection of primary data. The questionnaire was pilot tested with the object of assessing its validity and reliability before it was used in collecting data for the final study. Relevant approval, permit, authorization letter and consent were obtained prior to collecting data. Data analysis was facilitated by the use of Statistical Package for Social Sciences tool. Specifically, descriptive and inferential statistics were used in the analysis. The null hypotheses were tested at 95% confidence level. The results of the analysis were presented in tables and were interpreted and discussed in tandem with study objectives.The study concluded that there existed standard external policies which the Saccos must abide.The study further concluded that lending rates charged on the loans and deposits were regulated.It was further concluded that deposit taking Saccos were always under immense pressure.The Saccos rarely addressed the demands of the local community. From the findings the study recommended that the surveyed Saccos ought to full comply with the coercive and regulative pressures from SASRA, CBK and other regulating bodies.

90-99
13

Title : Gender, Experience and Self-Disclosure as Predictors of Stress Manifestation among Undergraduates

Authors : Imhonde Odhianosen Henry, Idiakheua Edison Omogenfe, Ohakwe Chinagozim Gift

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This study investigated the influence of gender, experience, and  self disclosure, on stress manifestation among undergraduates. Gender(male and female) experience in school environment (1-2 and 3-4 years) and self-disclosure (able  and non able ) on stress manifestation .Using the stratified sampling technique,  a total number of 300  (made up of 150 females and 150 males),  selected across   the levels of study ,representative of the faculties of Arts, Management, and Social Sciences  within the ages of 21-27 years  participated in this study by completing   the author disclosure /stress manifestation questionnaire. The stated hypotheses were tested at 0.05.It was found that gender and experience  has  no significant  effect, and self disclosure has significant effect on stress manifestation.  The need for  disclosure  and social skill training was suggested as a means of presenting, enhancing and maintaining social convoy, which leads to social ties and  social support, which acts as a stress buffer.

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