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Volume 7 Issue 3

S.No. Title & Authors Page No View
1

Title : Evaluation of Proximate, Fibre Fractions, Mineral Compositions and Phytochemical Screening in Camel’s Foot (Piliostigma Reticulatum DC) Pods in Kebbi State, Nigeria

Authors : Muftau Misbau Alaba, Malami Bello Sheu, Maigandi Sheu Ahmad, Gwandu Hamidu Ahmad

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Abstract :

The study was conducted to evaluate the proximate, fibre fractions, mineral compositions and phytochemical screening of Piliostigma reticulatum pods obtained in the senatorial districts of Kebbi State. Three areas covering three grazing reserves were randomly selected from each senatorial district. In each area 50m x 50m plot size were measured and demarcated where there are uncultivated stands of the browse plant. Matured pods were harvested during the dry season of 2015 to 2016 (December to February) from selected plant stands in all the areas in each district and pooled together as a representative sample. Representative sample for each senatorial district were dried, milled and taken to the laboratory for proximate, fiber, minerals and phytochemical analysis. Data on the various components (crude protein, ether extract, ash, crude fibre, nitrogen free extract, fibre fractions and minerals) were subjected to analysis of variance using SPSS 20.0 (2015) software package. The results indicated that all the parameters measured for proximate composition and minerals were not significantly (P>0.05) affected by their locations with the exception of sodium and phosphorus. Kebbi North was significantly (P<0.05) higher in DM, CP, CF and NDFcompared to Kebbi South, while there was no difference (P>0.05) between Kebbi North and Kebbi South in Acid Detergent Fibre (ADF) and Acid Detergent Lignin (ADL). However, there was a significant (p<0.05) difference in the sodium content among the means. But no significant (p>0.05) differences occurred among Kebbi North and Kebbi Central. The highest potassium, sodium, calcium, magnesium and phosphorus contents were recorded in Kebbi North (5500mg/kg), Kebbi Central (106mg/kg), Kebbi South (1.45mg/kg), Kebbi South (1.95mg/kg) and Kebbi North (6.90mg/kg) respectively. The phytochemical screening of the Camel’s foot pods revealed the presence of saponins, phenolics, tannins, flavonoids and alkaloids at moderate and trace levels. The pods of P. reticulatum obtained across the senatorial districts of Kebbi State have nutritive value which livestock can effectively benefit in their diet.  

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2

Title : Disaster Management Preparedness and Its Implications on Teaching and Learning Outcomes in Pre-primary Schools in Thika, Kiambu County, Kenya

Authors : Margaret Mkanjala Nyambu

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In Kenya, disaster management education has been incorporated in the School Safety Standards Manual. However, most pre-primary schools still experience cases of disasters. The purpose of this study was to assess disaster management preparedness and its implications on teaching and learning outcomes in pre-primary schools in Thika, Kiambu County, Kenya. The study was guided by The Chaos Theory of Disaster Management. The study adopted mixed research methodology and applied concurrent triangulation design. The target population comprised of 22 headteachers and 350 pre-primary school teachers all totaling to 372 from which a sample of 112 respondents were selected using the Central Limit Theorem. Stratified sampling was applied to create five strata based on the number of zones in Thika Sub-county. Questionnaire was used to collect data from pre-primary school teachers whereas interview was used to collect data from headteachers. Data analysis began by identifying common themes. Qualitative data was analyzed thematically based on objectives and presented in narrative forms whereas the quantitative data was analyzed descriptively using frequencies and percentages using Statistical Packages for Social Sciences (SPSS Version 23) and presented using tables. The study established that teaching and learning outcomes of learners in pre-primary schools has been all time low with many pre-primary school learners registering poor grades in basic numeracy, language and creativity skills.  The study also established that levels of disaster management planning in pre-primary schools is very low, inadequate staff training on disaster management, inadequate disaster management facilities and negative staff attitude towards disaster management. The study recommends that pre-primary school management should devise strategies for improving the dwindling levels of teaching and learning in pre-primary schools. The management of pre-primary schools should design a simple guide map and ensure that labels and signage can be easily understood by everybody within the school compound. The County Governments should develop a disaster management training module for teachers and other support staff on how to handle accidents or disasters in case one happens. The Ministry of Education should enforce stricter adherence to Standards Safety Manual (2008) designed for all schools from pre-primary to secondary as a strategy for creating a learner-friendly environment.

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3

Title : Temporal Assessment of Soil Loss in Owerri Using the Revised Universal Soil Loss Equation (Rusle) Model and Geospatial Techniques

Authors : Amadi A. K., Amangabara G. T., Owuama C. O.

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Temporal Assessment of soil loss in Owerri is a GIS-based time series study which incorporates the Revised Universal Soil Loss Equation (RUSLE) soil erosion model to calculate annual soil loss value and estimate soil erosion linked with precipitation and landuse in Owerri. Five parameters are used in the RUSLE model to estimate soil loss namely rainfall erosivity (R), soil erodibility (K), slope length and steepness factor (LS), cover management factor (C) and conservation practice factor (P). In the GIS environment and application “Flow Length” was used instead of “Flow Accumulation” to estimate the slope length and steepness (LS) factor. The modeling was carried out for year 2000 and 2015, using a LANDSAT remotely sensed data, digital elevation models, rainfall data from the study area, as well as existing soil maps. After running the RUSLE model and analyzing the result maps, no significant change in soil erosion trends or patterns were found, as well as no significant change in precipitation trend and land cover changes during the period 2000 to 2015. The study shows that the average annual soil loss for Owerri was estimated to be 315 t h-1 yr-1 .Rainfall erosivity was 3260.85 MJ mm ha−1 h−1 y−1 in year 2000 and increased to   3355.08 MJ mm ha−1 h−1 y−1 in year 2015 with a corresponding erodibility value of to 0.1302 t h-1 yr-1 in 2000 which increased to 0.1395 t h-1 yr-1 in year 2015. Observations shows that the areas of the study area where the topography is hilly and cut through by streams appear to have high risk of soil loss compared to the western part of the study area and also have a good NDVI analysis.

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4

Title : The Establishment of BALB/c Mouse Model Infected by Salmonella Typhimurium CVCC541

Authors : Xueqin Zhao, Hanna Fotina, Lei Wang, Jianhe Hu

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The infection of Salmonella is the main cause for gastrointestinal diseases worldwide. There are about 20 to 40 million cases with gastroenteritis caused by Salmonella infection across the world every year. In our study, we set up the Chinese Salmonella typhimurium CVCC541 infected mouse model by intraperitoneal injection with different amount of bacteria respectively. The results suggested the severity of clinical symptoms in mice was positively correlated with the dosage and duration of infection. Mice infected by S. typhimurium CVCC541 behaved loose coat and hunched back, sluggish, anorexic, and tendency to gather together. The necropsy results showed the severity of pathological changes was also positively correlated with the dosage of infection. The major lesion occurred in the intestine. Severe hemorrhage in the intestinal tract, especially in jejunum and ileum. Meanwhile, we found the amount of neutrophils increased, and the amounts of macrophages and T lymphocytes decreased significantly in the spleen of mice infected with S. typhimurium CVCC541. We first reported the clinical symptoms and pathological damages of mice caused by the infection of S. typhimurium CVCC541 at various concentrations in detail, which would provide the reference for studies of the molecular mechanism of Salmonella infection and drug resistance.

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5

Title : Effects of Storage Periods on Viability, Hatchability, Survival and Motility of Cryopreserved C. Gariepinus Semen

Authors : Christopher Onyemaechi Ezike, Felix Okaliwe Echor, Agbo A.N., Nicholas Chinwe Uwadiegwu

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The present study investigated the effect of storage periods (0, 24, 48, 72, and 96h) on fish semen cryopreserved with Mounibs  Extender (500mg of potassium bicarbonate, 100mg of reduced glutathione and 2135mg of sucrose in 50ml of distilled water) and mixed with cyoprotectant (5% Dimethyl sulphide DMSO). The quality of semen (motility  and duration) and performance (fertility, hatchability percentages and fry survival) were compared with control (unpreserved fresh semen not subjected to storage). The fertility rate was significantly higher among the stored semen at 24hrs (68.5%), 48hrs (64.7%), 72hrs (59.8%) and 96hrs (59.1%) than fresh semen (56.6%).  Hatchability rate showed the highest performance at 24hrs storage period (67.9%) followed by 48hrs (64.2%) than unpreserved semen (57.9%) which did not differ with 72hrs (59.3%) and 96hrs (58.9%). Fry survival was significantly higher in preserved stored semen 24hrs (99.4%), 48hrs (99.1%), 72hrs (98.6%) and 96hrs (98.5%) than control (97.4%).  Motility duration was significantly higher P<0.05) in control (50s) compared to stored semen at 24 (48s), 48 (47.6s), 72 (46.8s), and 96 hours (46.5s) but differences did not exist (P>0.05) in motility rate between control and stored semen.  Cryopreserved semen at 24 and 48 hours storage periods gave better sperm viability, fertility, and hatchability and survival rate than fresh semen and should be adopted in fish hatcheries in the tropics, to prevent semen deterioration, ensure its quality and availability for artificial insemination.

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