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Volume 7 Issue 1

S.No. Title & Authors Page No View
1

Title : Level of Heavy Metals in Soil Samples from Farmlands along Highways in Parts of Owerri, Nigeria

Authors : Okereke J. N., Nduka, J. N., Ukaoma, A.A., Ogidi I. O.

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Abstract :

The research was designed to ascertain the concentrations of heavy metals (Cu, Pb, Zn, Ni, Cd) in soil samples from farmlands along highways in parts of Owerri. Soil samples were collected from cassava farms along three major roads with high traffic density and a rural road that served as control location, for possible heavy metals contamination due to vehicular emission. Standard laboratory procedures were adopted to determine the concentration of heavy metals using Atomic Absorption Spectrophotometer (AAS). Contamination factor (CF) and Pollution Load Index were mathematically calculated. The results revealed that the mean concentrations of metals in soil samples in mg/kg ranged from 3.00 – 6.31 for Cu; Pb, 0.09 – 4.00; Zn, 3.97 – 8.59; Ni, 0.001 – 0.96; and Cd, 0.31 – 0.79. These metals showed decrease in concentrations with increase in distance away from the highway. The values of contamination factor (CF) were low except for Cd and Pollution Load Index (PLI) for all soil studied showed no sign of pollution. There was no correlation between traffic density and concentration of heavy metal in soil except for Cd (Rs= 0.800). The overall results showed evidence of some heavy metal pollution on the soils with possible cumulative effect over time.

01-07
2

Title : Prediction of the Catalyst Attrition Rate in an Industrial Fluid Catalytic Cracking Operation

Authors : Okwonna Obumneme O., Otaraku Ipeghan J., Oduola Koyejo M.

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Attrition occurs due to particle motion and inter-particle collision and therefore is a major source of catalyst deactivation in fluid catalytic cracking (FCC) processes which results in loss of valuable catalyst materials, reduced process efficiency, and equally affects production.  This work aims at predicting the attrition rate of a commercial catalyst used for industrial FCC operation. Design and operation data were used to carry out technical evaluation, physicochemical property test analysis, and modeling. Results show that mechanical stress rather than the thermal stress gave rise to attrition in this unit. 

08-15
3

Title : Chemical Flooding Enhanced Oil Recovery Using Local Alkali- Surfactant-Polymer

Authors : Uzoho C.U., Onyekonwu M., Akaranta O.

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Chemical flooding enhanced oil recovery is an aspect of enhanced oil recovery whereby chemicals (Alkaline, Surfactant and Polymer) are injected into the reservoir to release and produce trapped and mobile oil that remained in the reservoir after secondary flooding due to viscous, gravity and capillary forces. The success of this process has contributed immensely to nations energy need. One of the demerits of this type of enhanced oil recovery method is the high cost of the chemicals which makes the process worthwhile only when there is hike on oil price. As the Niger Deltaregion in Nigeria, West Africa prepares for tertiary recovery stage, it becomes important to introduce local contents as substitutes for the high cost chemicals for sustainability of the process. Research has shown that some local materials in Nigeria contain chemical compounds that can serve as Alkali, Surfactant and Polymer. Sand-pack Oil displacement flood tests were performed on 14 local materials using different concentrations under laboratory conditions. These local materials (potash, Elaeis guineensis, Musa sapientum, Khaya ivorensis, Nkankan (a native plant), Carica papaya’s leaves, Cocos nucifera, kai-kai, Vernonia amygdalina, Abelmoschus esculentus, Brachystegia eurycoma, Detarium microcarpum, Irvingia gabonensis and Mucuna flagellipes) were screened for Chemflooding Enhanced Oil Recovery. The best performing local material Alkali, Surfactant, Polymer gave additional oil displacement efficiency of 17.3%, 5.2% and 18.7% respectively after conventional flooding. Blends of local materials Alkaline-Surfactant, Alkaline-Polymer, Surfactant-Polymer and Alkaline-Surfactant-Polymer were formulated with maximum oil displacement efficiency of 96.7%, 93.5%, 95.2% and 90% respectively. The local materials Alkali and Polymer gave better results when used separately. These local materials were effective as Enhanced Oil Recovery agents and can as well substitute synthetic chemicals if refined and modified.

16-24
4

Title : Analysis of Image Hiding Process with Biometric Authentication Using LSB Stegnography & Mixed Key Cryptography

Authors : Gaurav Sharma, Vipra Bohra

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Abstract :

The implementation of a system that amalgamates encryption with biometric authentication to provide high level security is the sole purpose of this paper. The system is based on the hybrid algorithm of the LSB stegnography and mixed key cryptography which is being secured by a key which is of variable length and also finger printing is used in order to generate key and to provide better security. As the proposed work can be applied on both text as well as images.The propose work make use of biometric thinning and binarization in order to generate minutia which is helful in generating key. Based on hybrid algorithm, LSB stegnography and cryptoghaphy is being used.

25-27
5

Title : Comparative Study on Green & Coventional Concrete (An Experimental Study)

Authors : Kumar Abhinav, Mr. Mukesh Chaudhary

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Green concrete is a new form to the existing (regular) types of concrete which resembles the conventional concrete but its manufacturing or usage of this concrete requires minimum amount of heat energy and causes the lowest harm to the surrounding environment. Since it deals into uses of the recycled aggregates and materials, it also reduces the extra load in landfills and mitigates the wastage of aggregates. Thus, the net CO2 emissions are reduced. The reuse of materials also contributes intensively to economy. Green concrete can be considered elemental to sustainable development since it is eco-friendly in nature. One of the methods for manufacturing of green concrete involves reduction of amount of cement in the mix, which add to the reduction the total cement consumption. The use of waste materials also solves the problem of disposing the excessive amount of industrial wastes. This paper discusses the importance of Green Concrete in the present day context and highlights its merits over conventional concrete which otherwise posing a serious threat to the environment through global warming.

28-31
6

Title : Performance of Concrete by Partially Replacement of Natural Sand with Stone Dust in Concrete

Authors : Mayur sharma, Dr. Bharat Nagar

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Stone dust is a material which we can easily get from the local crusher plants. Stone dust has the properties that are very similar to the natural sand which prompts it is used in manufacturing of concrete. Addition of Stone dust in manufacturing of concrete can help in uplifting the quality of concrete and also help in retaining and conserving  the natural sand.

An experimental program was carried out to study the performance of concrete, workability and compressive strength of concrete made using stone dust as partial replacement of natural sand in the range of 10% - 100%.

M25 grade of concrete was designed by using Pozzolana Portland Cement (PPC) 34 % Fly Ash mixed and 100 % natural sand based for reference concrete. Workability and Compressive strength were calculated at different (percent based) replacement level of natural sand with stone dust.

Compressive strength results shows that by replacing 10% to 100 % of natural sand with stone dust in concrete slightly decreases compressive strength as compared to the conventional concrete mix.

The best possible optimum replacement level of natural sand with stone dust is 40 percent based on compressive strength.

32-34
7

Title : Gamification Patterns in Selected E-Commerce Platforms

Authors : Abel Samuel , Omotosho Olawale, Ajayi Adebowale O., Awodele Oludele, Ajayi Oluwabukola F.`, Okolie Samuel

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Abstract :

Gamification and E-commerce are often combined nowadays to achieve flourishing businesses and engaging experiences for customers. Ascertaining how businesses gain deeper engagement in services and products they offer remains a viable research area.

The complex and varied nature of E-commerce businesses makes it unnecessary to search for a one-size-fits-all solution in gamification as a wide variety of E-commerce functions can be gamified. By focusing on three E-commerce applications: shopping and browsing in webshops, product/brand experience and rating systems; this study presents a review of applied gamification in E-commerce. For each of the selected E-commerce domains, a description of the gamified E-commerce functionality is given, a detailed analysis of an existing system is offered and a list of further examples that also used gamification for the same functions is presented.

This study shows which different common E-commerce elements can be gamified and in which contexts the gamification is best applied.

35-41
8

Title : Impact of Nigeria’s External Debt on Its Economic Growth (1981 - 2018)

Authors : Onwuka Onwuka Okwara, Egbu Favour

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Over the years, the quest for economic growth and development compelled Nigeria to acquire external debt. This research work is on the impact of Nigeria’s external debt on its economic growth. The objective of this study was to determine the impact of Nigeria’s external debt on its economic growth. Time series data were applied in carrying out this research work and the data were sourced from Debt Management Office (DMO), Central Bank of Nigeria (CBN) and Nigeria Bureau of Statistics (NBS). Ordinary least square regression analysis was employed in this work with the use of STATA 13 package. The scope of the study is basically focused on Nigeria’s external debt from different sources and economic growth from 1981 to 2018. This research focuses on a broad range of issues with the collection of a diversity of data in the field of external debt and economic development. A literature review was used to determine the theoretical basis for research topic and prior research method conducted on various aspects of relating to external debt and economic development. This work also made use of descriptive research design. The findings reveal that Nigeria external debt has a significant impact on its economic growth. It recommended that the Nigerian government should exercise caution in incurring debt and make sure that the external debt incurred is used strictly for capital projects or tied to a particular project that will engender economic growth.

42-47
9

Title : Return on Equity of Listed Manufacturing Companies and Government Spending On Security in Nigeria (1990-2015)

Authors : Odunlade Olajire Aremu, Adegbie Festus Folajinmi, Akintoye Ishola Rufus

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In this study we focused on the effect of government expenditure on security on the Return On Equity of manufacturing companies in Nigeria. The study adopted ex-post facto research design. a sample size of 20 was purposively selected  from the population of 83 manufacturing companies in the country as at 2016. Secondary data were obtained from published financial statements of listed manufacturing companies in Nigeria, publications of government and the World Bank. Validity and Reliability of the data were based on the reports of external auditors and other regulatory agencies. The data were analyzed using descriptive and inferential statistical methods. The study found that government spending on Security did not have significant effect on the financial performance of the manufacturing firms. ROE(β2=2.558, t=0.752, p>0.05).

48-53
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