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Volume 6 Issue 6

S.No. Title & Authors Page No View
1

Title : Synthesis, Characterization and Evaluation of acetylpyridine-2,4-dinitrophenyl hydrazone as a Chromogenic Reagent for Uv-Vis Spectrophotometric Determination of Selected Toxic Heavy Metals (Pb, Cr, Cd and As) in Water, Environmental and Biological Samples

Authors : Echioda Samuel, Ekanem E.O., Chindo I.Y., Kolo A. M

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This study involves the preparations, elemental analysis, characterization and evaluation of acetylpyridine-2,4-dinitrophenyl hydrazone as chromogenic reagents for UV/Vis spectrophotometric determination of heavy metals in environmental samples. The hydrazone was synthesized by single step condensation method. The yield of the product obtained was 84% with melting point of 211-214°C, the nitrogen content yielded 17.62 %. The infrared spectrum data obtained from the measurement of acetylpyridine-2,4-dinitrophenyl hydrazone was characterized by absorption bands around 3451 cm-1 due to NH stretch, 1602 cm-1 due C=N, 1599 cm-1 due C=C stretch and 1334, 1468 cm-1 due to the –NO2 groups. The presence of the hydrazones functional groups in the infrared and Nuclear magnetic resonance indicates the successful preparations of the said compound and also the data from the results of the experimental, IR and NMR analysis, suggested it to be the composition of the prepared hydrazones. The analytical properties of the reagent APGH on the metals Cd, As, Pb, and Cr revealed a maximum absorption at a wavelength range of between 385.0 (Cr) to 440.0nm for (Pb) at a working pH of 6.5 to 7.5 room temperature (37°C). The reagent had a molar absorptivities (L mol-1 cm-1) ranging from 2.006 x 104 (Pb) to 2.407 x 104 (Cd), a mole ratio of metal to ligand of 1:1, a detection limit (µg/g) ranging from 0.3272 (As) to 0.4456 (Cd) and the metal-ligand complex was stable spectrophotometrically for 0-36 hours. The reagent had a Beer’s law validity range (mgL-1) of 0.001 to 100. The preliminary investigations on APDH as possible chelating reagents for the UV-Vis spectrophotometric determination of lead (Pb) on waste water and soil from tannery water was carried out, and the result were compared with results from Atomic absorption spectroscopy (AAS) methods. The results obtained were satisfactory with good precision and accuracy for the APDH  method.    

01-11
2

Title : Finite Element Analysis of Progressive Collapse Resistance of Reinforced Concrete Framed Multi-Storey Building Subjected To Extreme Loadings

Authors : Brown Opiriye Prayer, Ngekpe Barisua Ebenezer, Akobo Iboroma. Zeddon. S.

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This study investigates the progressive collapse of Reinforced Concrete framed structure due to sudden impact or resulting from blast such as terrorist attack, plane crash, vehicle collision and other abnormal loading. Nonlinear finite element analysis (NLFEA) was used to investigate the deformation of frame assembly subject to edge column removal scenario. Prior to implementation of the NLFEA, a modelling scheme and its associated material parameters were developed and validated using published experimental data. The validated model was further employed to investigate the load transfer mechanisms and explore parameters influencing the robustness of the frame system subject to edge column removal. Measures to increase robustness of the frame such as; inclusion of increase in material strength were proposed.

12-22
3

Title : Experimental Study of Optimization of Dry Compressive Strength of Groundnut Shell Ash and Ant Hill Powder-Bonded Sand for Foundry Application

Authors : Patrick C. Okonji, Chidozie C. Nwobi-Okoye, Kennedy C. Owuama

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The optimization of dry compressive strength of groundnut shell ash (GSAp) and ant hill powder (AHp) was investigated. Ratio of: 2/0, 4/5, 6/10, 8/15, 10/20, 12/25, 14/30% GSAp/AHp was used in the formulation.  Taguchi method was used to determine the optimization condition. The work shows that the maximum baked compressive strength of 356.7, 355.0, 335.3 kN/m2 was obtained at 5, 2, 1h and 100, 200, 300oC at 14/30% GSAp/AHp addition. GSAp/AHp has the greatest effect (97.61%), followed by time (2.03%) and the least temperature (0.35%). The shear strength of 78.12, 110.00, 123.00, 145.60, 154.67, 158.90 and 168.9 kN/m2 were obtained at 2/0, 4/5, 6/10, 8/15, 10/20, 12/25, 14/30% GSAp/AHp respectively. The optimal condition for the dry compressive strength for the selected factors and levels was achieved at GSAp/AHp level L3, time L2 and temperature L1. At optimum quantities of GSAp (14%) and AHp (30%) added to silica sand, the results obtained showed that groundnut shell ash and ant hill powder-bonded sand can be suitable for use in the foundry industry for preparation of moulds and cores.

22-28
4

Title : Cellular Immunity and Immune Activation Markers in HIV Seropositive Tuberculosis Patients in Zaria, Nigeria

Authors : Tsavyange Peter Mbaave

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Background: The CD4+ T  lymphocyte is used in disease staging in both HIV and Tuberculosis/HIV co infection. Its cost   and technical requirements have   necessitated   search for alternative tests. The search for a cheaper surrogate for the CD4+ T lymphocytes count is imperative in resource limited settings dependent on donor funding as ours   necessitated this study.

Materials and method: The study subjects were new patients who presented to Ahmadu Bello University Teaching Hospital (ABUTH) Zaria during the study period. They underwent clinical evaluation, relevant investigations. Those found to be co infected with TB/HIV further had CD4+ T lymphocytes count, beta-2-microglobulin (β2M) and Erythrocyte Sedimentation Rates (ESR) evaluated and were consecutively included in the study. HIV negative tuberculosis patients and normal persons served as controls.

Findings: Seventy five study subjects were included in the study. Their mean CD4+ count was 178 ± 116.81 cells/ul., serum beta -β2M level was 3.29mg/L, tuberculin skin test (TST) reaction was 5 ±6.7mm and erythrocyte sedimentation rate (ESR) was 67.88 ± 37.32mm/hr, which were statistically significantly different from the TB only and controls.

Conclusion and recommendation: The ESR and the TST reaction had weak and moderate predictive values for CD4+ count respectively. The association is too weak for these to be recommended as surrogates for CD4+ T lymphocytes count and progression in HIV/TB co infected patients.

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5

Title : Physicochemical and Microbiological Evaluation of Agbo (herbal decoction) Sold in Some Parts of Warri Metropolis, Delta-State, Nigeria

Authors : Ejukonemu E. Francis, Isiosio O. Isaac

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Agbo which is the Yoruba name for herbal medicine, is an aqueous decoction produced from mixtures of several plant parts such as leaves, stems, roots and barks that is used in treating illnesses and diseases. The study was carried out to ascertain the microbial load, level of heavy metal contamination and antibiotics sensitivity of bacteria isolated from agbo sold in Warri, Delta State. A total of twenty –five (25) agbo samples collected from five (5) locations were analyzed. The pH values of the various agbo samples ranges from 3.38 ± 1.05 to 7.23 ± 1.02. Concentration of Iron ranges from 6.085 ± 1.00 - 21.904 ± 3.04 mg/l, Lead ranges from 0.006 ± 0.00 - 0.021 ± 0.08 mg/l, Cadmium ranges from 0.028 ± 0.10 - 0.102 ± 0.11 mg/l, Mercury ranges from 0.003 ± 0.00 - 0.010 ± 0.08 mg/l, Arsenic ranges from 0.002 ± 0.00 - 0.007 ± 0.05 mg/l and Chromium ranges from 0.012 ± 0.03 - 0.034 ± 0.01 mg/l respectively. The mean total viable count ranges between 25 ± 1.03 X 104 - 44 ± 0.06 X 104 cfu/ml, total coliforn count ranges between 0.15 ± 0.51 X 104 – 0.30 ± 0.11 X 104 cfu/ml and total fungal count ranges between 25 ± 1.06 - 49 ± 1.05 X 104 cfu/ml respectively. S.auerus (29.4%) was the predominant bacteria. This was followed by Klebsiella species (23.5%), E.coli (17.6%), Salmonella species (11.8%), Proteus mirabilis (11.8%) and Enterobacter species (5.9%). Aspergillus species (23.8) was the predominant fungi. This was followed by Candida species (19.0%), Penicillium spp (14.3%), Mucor (14.3%), Botrytis (9.5%), Fusarium spp (9.5%), Geotrichum spp (4.8%) and Phoma spp (4.8%). All the isolates were resistant to ampicillin.  S.areus was susceptible to augmentin, gentamycin and ceporex, E. coli was susceptible to ciprofloxacin, gentamycin and nalidixic acid. Klebsiella spp was susceptible to ciprofloxacin and getamycin, Salmonella spp was susceptible to ciprofloxacin, P.mirabilis was susceptible to ciprofloxacin and gentamycin, and Enterobacter spp was susceptible to pefloxacine, augmentin and gentamycin.

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6

Title : Jethro-Moses Model of Leadership: A Lesson for Effective Leadership in Church and Secular Organizations

Authors : Simon A. Ishola , Kolawole Taiwo Wojuola

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Leadership is critical in any venture, most especially in the church because the church today needs dedicated, committed, visionary and motivational leaders who will make things happen. There are three ways by which leaders were appointed in the Bible, such as self-appointed leader, men-appointed leader and God-appointed leader. Jethro-Moses model of leadership reveals that, leadership requires influencing, directing, and managing people. It demands good stewardship. Leadership and teamwork are interwoven because none of these concepts can function independently, if maximum success is to be achieved. The efficiencies and effectiveness of any leadership is to a great extent, determined by how harmonious the leaders are order to effectively harness all resources and abilities together, to achieve set goals and objectives. Leaders, whether secular or Christian, should not be loners. They must have followers to be effective and for institutions to be efficient. Leaders must appreciate the value of those who surround them and allow them play the role they have been gifted and assigned to do. Pastors should value and respect all volunteer leaders and workers, which will allow them to be dedicated and willing to share ideas and suggestions that will add to the value of the church. Jethro-Moses model of leadership can have a great effect and positive impact on the contemporary pastoral ministry in a Local Church and secular Organizations if properly and efficiently implemented.

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7

Title : Party Politics And Internal Democracy In Nigeria: People’s Democratic Party (PDP) In Anambra State, 2006-2016

Authors : Chukwujekwu Onyinyechukwu N., Ezeabasili, Ifeoma Ethel

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Examines party politics and internal democracy in Nigeria ,specifically  the Anambra State Chapter of the People’s Democratic Party (PDP). Elite theory was used as the theoretical framework , also the study relied mainly on primary sources of data,  descriptive survey design was adopted. The study was analyzed using  Simple Percentage and Chi-Square.  The  study  revealed that .there is a significant relationship between political ‘godfathers’ and internal party democracy in PDP in Anambra State; Also is the decision on the composition of party leadership among other manipulations against the interest of the majority of party members.

 The study concludes that Internal   democracy is the foundation for real expansion of democracy in a developing society like Nigeria. It, therefore, calls for concern when members violate party constitution and display executive arrogance within the party, this act has not only torn many parties apart but also occasioned the decampment of many party stalwarts and crippled internal party democracy in Nigeria.

Based on the findings, the following recommendations were made; hence  the influence of godfathers in party politics in Anambra state is alarming, it is, therefore, necessary to adhere to party financial guidelines, re-defining of the legislative framework governing party registrations, functioning, and device measures to limit the role of godfathers and barons in party politics. There is also the need for reform of political financing, that is, the introduction of measures to strengthen parties to raise their own funds and also enhance their capacity to be more accountable and transparent in matters of party and campaign financing.

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8

Title : Modification of Huntington’s Procedure In The Tibialization of the Fibular in Awka, Anambra State Nigeria-A Report of Cases of Infected Non Union and Acute Trauma with Tibia Loss

Authors : Nwachukwu AC, Nwachukwu CC, Melekwe CK

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Tibialization of the fibularis a procedure that requires medialization of the fibular in whole or in part to  replace the function of the tibia. This could be as a result of large tibia defect due to trauma, infection or congenital loss. We report two cases of tibialization of the fibularby modifying the Huntington’s procedure. Only one stage of the procedure was used to tibialize one end of the fibular in each case and then the outcome observed.

Patient A is a 32year old man who  hadinfected fragments of remaining right tibiafollowing gunshot injury a year prior to presentation.  He underwent excision of sinus riddled skin and scars and excision of the infected segment, and tibialization of the proximal end of the fibular to the distal end of the proximal tibia prepared for it while still maintaining its natural articulation on the distal tibiofibular joint. He also had flap cover and skin grafting. Tibialization and fibular hypertrophy was noted over 1year to4year period.

Patient B is a 50year old woman who was a victim of motorcycle crash. She sustained Gustillo and Anderson type 3B open distal lefttibia fracture withmuscle andskin loss. She was resuscitated and underwent an emergency tibialization of the fibular, had muscle advancement flap cover and  skin grafting.Follow up for 3years showed  fibular hypertrophy and painless ambulation.

Conclusion: Modification of Huntington’s procedure is effective in the treatment of tibial bone gap.

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9

Title : Complementary and Alternative Medicine Use for Musculoskeletal and Other Health Conditions –A Comparative Study Between two Ethnic Groups in Nigeria

Authors : Nwachukwu CC, Nwachukwu AC, Fatiregun AA, Owoaje ET

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Background      Complementary and Alternative Medicine (CAM)are used for health promotion and disease treatment. Many options of CAM are exist.

Methods             Comparative cross-sectional studyamong residents of Yoruba and Hausa ethnicity in Ibadan, Nigeria.WHO modified cluster sampling technique wasused to select 800 respondents, 400 from each study groups. Data were collected using semi-structured, interviewer administered questionnaire.

Results               Lifetime CAM use was reported by 88.5% of Yoruba and 95.8% of Hausa respondents (p < 0.05) while 75.0% of Yoruba and 88.0% of Hausa were current CAM users (p < 0.05). The most commonly used CAM were unprocessed herbal preparations by 64.0% of Yoruba and 79.5% of Hausa respondents (p < 0.05). Conditions for which respondents used unprocessed herbal preparation included febrile illnesses (Yoruba 45.1%, Hausa 41.9%), gastrointestinal conditions (Yoruba 4.9%, Hausa 4.7%), musculoskeletal conditions (Yoruba 2.8%, Hausa 2.2%) as well as for health promotion (Yoruba 4.9%, Hausa 1.6%); there was no statistical difference.

Predictors of lifetime CAM use were: being currently married [OR 2.22; 95% CI 1.46 – 3.39], Islamic religion [OR 1.63; 95% CI 1.02 – 2.62] and Hausa ethnicity [OR 2.24; 95% CI 1.02 – 4.93]. Similarly, the predictors of current CAM use were being currently married [OR 2.77; 95% CI 1.49 – 5.16], Islamic religion [OR 2.70; 95% CI 1.35 – 5.41] and Hausa ethnicity [OR 1.38; 95% CI 1.00 – 2.13].

Conclusion        A high prevalence of CAM use was reported in both study groups. The conditions for which CAM was used were not significantly different.

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10

Title : Femoral Neck Fracture in Children- Decompression, Anatomic Reduction and Use of Kirchner Wires to the Rescue?

Authors : Nwachukwu A.C., Nwachukwu C.C., Ezeobi I., Dr. Melekwe C.K.

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Femoral neck fracture in children is very rear. Whenever it occurs, it presents a challenge to the orthopaedic surgeon. There are schools of thought on immediate capsular aspiration and surgery. However, some do not believe that capsular decompression and immediate surgery prevent avascular necrosis of the femur. This is the reason for this report, to lend my findings to the debate.

This patient is a 7year old female child. She was a victim of truck-pedestrian injury. It was a high energy trauma with resultant displaced intertrochanteric femoral neck fracture(Delbert type IV). There was mild head injury which she recovered from. She did not have capsular decompression. She had open reduction and internal fixation 8 days after injury.  We used smooth Kirchner wires for fixation. She was kept on strict bed rest.

6weeks after surgery, she had radiological union and commenced guarded ambulation with a walker(Zimmer frame). Six months post injury, there is no sign of avascular necrosis and patient walks full weight bearing without pain.

Conclusion:  Delayed surgery in a displaced femoral fracture in children did not affect surgery outcome. Open arthrotomy and immediate decompression may not be necessary in displaced femoral neck fracture. Open and anatomic reduction may be a way to reduced poor outcome.

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11

Title : Flexural Strength of 10 mm (3/8’’) Gravel Aggregates Concrete Beams with Glass Fiber Reinforced Plastic (GFRP) and Steel Bar

Authors : Engr. Prof. Ephraim M. E., Engr. Dr.Thank God. O., Engr. Adhekovwigho. E.

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The paper present the  experimental study of the flexural strength and deformation of concrete beams containing 10 mm (3/8’’) all – in gravel aggregate concrete, reinforced with glass fiber reinforced plastic (GFRP) bars, steel bars and hybrid combination of steel and GFRP bars in diameters of 10 mm, 12 mm and 16 mm. A total of 18 standard cubes and 39 reinforced beams specimens were produced and tested for compressive and flexural strength after 28 days wet curing.

Results showed that plain concrete exhibit brittle failure. The failure mechanism of beam reinforced with steel and hybrid combination was predominantly ductile characterized by inclined tensile cracks due to a combination of shear and flexural failure. The higher ductility and tensile strength exhibited by beams with hybrid bars was principally responsible for the delay in flexural failure. The ultimate strength of the plain concrete beam was increased by about 5, 7 and 8 times in beam reinforced with steel, GFRP and hybrid bars.

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12

Title : Structural Properties of Locally Made Ultrafine Palm Oil Fuel Ash (UPOFA) as Partial Replacement for Cement

Authors : M. E Ephraim, T. Ode, C. B. O Ugwu

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Locally made Ultra Fine Palm Oil Fuel Ash (UPOFA) was processed from waste Palm Oil Fuel Ash (POFA) locally available in oil mills and was used as partial replacement for cement in the production of High Strength Concrete (HSC) at the replacement levels of 10%, 20%, 30% and 40%  for various water binder ratios (w/b) of 0.25, 0.27 and 0.29. The workability of the fresh concrete and the mechanical properties of the hardened concrete were investigated. It was observed that the workability reduced with increase in UPOFA content and increased with water binder ratio. The slump values ranged from 0 to 22mm with the highest value recorded for the control with w/b ratio of 0.29. The 28 days compressive, split tensile and flexural strength and modulus of elasticity of the HSC increased with UPOFA content up to 20%, followed by a drop for higher UPOFA content. The maximum values of these characteristics occurred at UPOFA content of 10% and were respectively 82.40, 4.51, 5.45 and N/mm2 The results are in good agreement with those from earlier studies and international codes and standards.

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13

Title : Structural Performance Assessment of Fixed Platforms Located Offshore Nigeria

Authors : Temple Nnamdi Njoku, Maurice Eyo Ephraim

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The performance of two oil production platforms was investigated with the aim of establishing acceptance criteria for structural performance of offshore platforms located in the benign-sea environment of offshore Nigeria. The platforms were modeled using the Bentley SACS software program with the material characteristics and condition data of two existing 4-legged and 8-legged platforms, located at depths of 8 m and 24 m respectively. In-place linear and pushover non-linear structural analyses were performed on the models and the results, combined with those from structural reliability analysis, formed the basis for the formulation of the acceptance criteria for structural performance. To capture the planes of least resistance, the platforms were subjected to 8-directional environmental loading which yielded the true reserve strength ratio of 1.8 and 1.5 against the values of 2.6 and 1.8, calculated from the traditional broadside load application practice. Furthermore, the results of structural reliability analyses show that for optimum structural performance, a target reserve strength ratio (RSR) value of 2.1 is required for the platforms to achieve a probability of failure of . Consequently, the two platforms, having RSR values less than the recommended threshold, are recommended for strengthening to shore up their reserve strength capacity and guarantee their continued fitness-for service.

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14

Title : The Construction and Implementation of Heart Beat Monitor Using Fingertip

Authors : Esekhaigbe F.I, Okoedion, Abode H.O

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The construction and implementation of a device for measuring heart rate was carried out in this research work. As heart related diseases are increasing day by day, the need for an accurate and affordable heart rate measuring device is essential to ensure quality of health. However, most heart rate measuring tools are expensive. Our proposed heart rate measuring device is economical and user friendly and uses optical technology to detect the flow of blood through index finger. Three phases are used to detect pulses on the fingertip that includes pulse detection, signal extraction and pulse amplification. We compared the performance of the constructed heart beat measuring device with standard digital wristwatch heart beat measuring device of ten persons (all adults). The results showed that the error rate in the device is negligible. This device is recommended for use homes and for individual use. However, because of its less precision and accuracy, individuals should not rely on the measured values. Therefore, more research is needed in order to improve its accuracy and hence making it usable in the clinical world.

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15

Title : Design and Simulation of Single Stage Amplifier Using 2N2222A Transistor

Authors : Y. Abdullahi, B.B. Sahabi

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An amplifier is an electronic device that amplifies the weak signal or increases the strength of a weak signal. It can either be a separate piece of equipment or an electrical circuit contained within another device. Every device or circuit, be it analog or digital requires signal amplification at one level or the other during their functioning. Considering the most basic amplifiers i.e. single-stage amplifiers which are the basic building block of all the amplifiers, be it a multi-stage amplifier or a differential amplifier. This paper presents the analysis of the parameter of a single stage signal transistor amplifier using 2N2222A transistor base on maximum rating of the transistor. A Complete Common Emitter Transistor Amplifier   was design ,the battery voltage(VCC), collector resistor (RC), emitter resistor (RE), bias resistors R1 and R2, additional resistor Rg between the emitter resistor and the transistor , values of capacitors ( input, output and emitter) were calculated. Actual performance of the complete circuit was tested using Multisim  9 Soft ware, the resistance at which the amplifier instantaneously generates Gain, the range of the Input Voltage at which the amplifier has different Output Voltage and different Gain, the  saturation point of amplifier, the cut-off frequencies, the Passband or Bandwidth (BW) of the amplifier, the relationship between additional Resistor (Rg), Input Voltage(Vin), frequency respond and Gain were determined and presented graphically.

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16

Title : Formulation of Water-Based Mud withWaste Tigernut Fibre as Additive

Authors : D. E. Jimmy, E. N. Wami , E. O. Ehirim ,R. N. Okparanma

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This study was conducted to assess the suitability of waste Tigernutfibre as an additive in place of polyanionic cellulose ultra-low (PAC UL) in the formulation of standard water-based potassium chloride (KCl) polymer gel mud. Four mud samples (A, C1, C2, and C3)were preparedwith standard industrial KCl polymer gel. Sample A, which served as the control, was prepared with conventional PAC UL. SamplesC1, C2, and C3were prepared with waste Tigernut fibre of particle sizes 212, 75, and 40 μm respectively. Rheological, API filtration, and selected physicochemical properties of samplesC1, C2, and C3including density, marsh funnel (effective) viscosity, sand content, alkalinity, chloride content, and pH were tested and compared with those of the control mud sample A. Results showed that all but the pH of mud samplesC1, C2, and C3 were slightly higher (albeit within the recommended values) than those of the control mud sample A. In terms of rheological properties, mud samples C1, C2, and C3had better values compared with control mud sample A. The filtration volume for sample C3 (5.4 cc/ml) at 30 minutes was comparable with that of sample A (5.2 cc/ml) within the same time interval. However, values obtained for samples C1 and C2 were totally out of range. These results have conclusively shown that waste Tigernut fibre can be a good substitute for conventional PAC UL additivein the formulation of high-quality standard water-based KCl polymer gel mud, especially for API filtration and rheology control.

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Title : Personality Characteristics as Predictor of Preventive Health Behaviour

Authors : Dr. C.K. Arowosegbe, Olajide Olufunmilayo A., Akeredolu Adekunle Yemi

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This study investigated personality characteristics as predictor of preventive health behaviour. Two hundred research participants were used in the course of this study. Two instruments were used which include Big five inventory developed by John(1991) which aim to assess personality characteristics and preventive health behaviour scale developed by Karls and Cobb (1995) to measure individual perceived health behaviour. Six hypotheses were tested in the study using regression analysis and Analysis of Variance statistical test. The first hypothesis states that agreeableness will predict preventive health behaviour and it was observed from the study that agreeableness predicts preventive health behaviour. Hypothesis two states that conscientiousness will predict preventive health behaviour and it was observed from the study that conscientiousness does not predict preventive health behaviour. Hypothesis three states that extraversion will predict preventive health behaviour and it was observed from the study that extraversion does not predict preventive health behaviour. Hypothesis four reported that openness to experience will predict preventive health behaviour and it was observed from the study that openness to experience predicts preventive health behaviour. Hypothesis five states that neuroticism will predict preventive health behaviour and the result of the study revealed that neuroticism does not predict preventive health behaviour. Hypothesis six states that age will influence preventive health behaviour and it was reported that age does not have a significant influence on preventive health behaviour (F(2 195) = .294 p >.05). Findings are discussed according to literatures, relevant conclusions were drawn and it was recommended that government should formulate policy that will enhance preventive health behaviour among individuals and organisation.

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18

Title : Gatekeepers or the Consumers? Questioning the Survival of Sexually Explicit Contents in a Depressed Economy: The Nigerian Music Industry Experience

Authors : Ikegbunam Peter Chierike, Obiakor Casmir Uchenna

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Given the level of proliferation of the church and evangelism of all kinds in Nigeria, and the contents of Nigerian music industry, one may be tempted to probe the reason for the survival of such contents amidst heavy preaching against immoralities and indecency in the society. Considering the economy, producers of contents are expected to be financially conscious. In this guise, this study is set to ascertain the reason for the survival of these contents, their production and gratifications obtained among consumers. The study targeted the Christian youths using methodological triangulation approach whereas digital Darwinism hypothesis and the uses and gratifications theory were adopted as the framework for the study. Ten producers, 381 students and 36 top music videos were purposively sampled for the study. Findings revealed that gatekeepers try to survive by producing contents that meet the consumers’ gratifications where consumers’ patronage encourages the persistent production of such contents. The researchers recommended that the church should brace up to duty while the youths should apply the teachings in the church to reduce patronage of sexually explicit contents in order to reduce the rate of its influx in the society for restoration of moral standard preached by the church.

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Title : Influence of Teacher’s Qualification on the Quality of Education in Pre-Primary Schools in Nairobi City County, Kenya

Authors : Yvonne Njeri Rubia, Ong’ang’a H. M. Ouko

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The issue of quality education is very critical when it comes to overall performance of pre-primary schools. Despite this tremendous increase in access rate in the sub-sector, provision of quality pre-primary education remains a challenge across the country. The main purpose of this study was to find out whether teachers’ qualification influences quality of Pre-primary school education in Nairobi City County. This study adopted a descriptive survey research design. The study targeted ninety (90) ECDE teachers and fifteen (15) principals. Random sampling procedure and purposive sampling procedure will be used to sample 40 ECDE teachers and 14 principals. Validity of research instruments was measured through content validity.  Reliability of the research instruments was determined by carrying out a pilot test of the instruments using another similar group with the same characteristics as the one targeted in the study. The collected data was analyzed using quantitative data analysis approach. Descriptive analysis such as frequencies and percentages was used to present quantitative data collected from teachers and principals.The collected data was analysed with the help of Statistical Package for Social Science (SPSS) version 21.0.  Findings indicated that teachers who were well motivated performed their duties with minimal supervision.

The study recommended that head teachers should try as much as possible to recruit qualified staff for effective curriculum implementation and encourage the stakeholders to motivate the ECDE teachers to increase their efficiency.

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Title : Influence of Paranormal Beliefs on Self Concept, Achievement Motivation and Depression among Undergraduates

Authors : MOKUOLU Bolade Olubunmi

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The extent of an individual’s motivation to achieve and approach to life is sometimes a function of the belief of the individual about life and the forces that influence it. Paranormal beliefs were assessed in this study in order to understand its impact on the self-concept, achievement motivation, and depression among undergraduates. 265 undergraduates from the Ekiti State University randomly drawn from various faculties within the University were involved. Four hypotheses were tested using regression analysis. It was revealed that, Psi belief, Superstition, Spiritualism, extra ordinary life reform, precognition (which are all dimensions of paranormal beliefs) significantly predict self-concept; only superstition and traditional religious belief have significant influence on achievement motivation, and there is a significant joint influence of all paranormal dimensions on achievement motivation. Results also showed that only traditional belief has significant main influence on depression, and there is a significant joint influence of paranormal beliefs on depression. While superstition and precognition have significant influence on self-concept among male students, the self-concept of female students was found to be influenced by Psi belief, superstition, spiritualism, precognition and paranormal belief. Findings were discussed in relation to existing literature and it was recommended that undergraduates need to be more enlightened on the understanding of paranormal beliefs, its positive and negative effects on their well-being, and also how these beliefs can be positively used.

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Title : An Assessment of Health Practices of Those Who Live Long: A Study of Elderly Persons in Vandeikya L G A of Benue State, Nigeria

Authors : Iorkosu Tyover Samuel, Alugwa Euphemia Dooyum, Akor Dorca Nguumbur, Dzungwe Catherine Nguveren, Torkobo Joy N., Orngu Aondohemba Godwin

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Abstract :

Life expectancy as stated by WHO, and UNDESA for Nigeria in the last decades indicated that persons in Nigeria does not live up to 55 years. But over the years we have observed that there are persons that live more than WHO, and UNDESA life expectancy report. According to WHO and UNDESA the modifiable lifestyle factors such as exercise, alcohol status, smoking status and diet contribute greatly to longevity but are poorly practice by Nigerians. The study is therefore set to assess the health practices of those who live long: a study of elderly persons in Vandeikya LGA of Benue State, Nigeria. The cross- sectional survey design was use. The snowball and accidental sampling technique was adopted in all the twelve wards of the Local Government Areas. Using these methods, a total of 183 participants were used in administering structured questionnaire. Twelve elderly persons including village heads of the age 60 years above was selected for focus group discussion. Data collected were analyzed through descriptive statistics and chart using statistics package for social science (SPSS). Results of the findings revealed that 34% of the respondents are from the age range of 76-80 years, 24.7 % from 65-69 years which is above 52.7 and 53.8 years life expectancy of Nigeria as listed by WHO, and UNDESA. The study also revealed that people did not eat balance diet and majority of them drink water from the stream or river, majority 82.5% did not take part in exercise and carried out medical check-up (80.3%). The correlation was used to interpret the perceived level of influence of educational background and religious affiliation on longevity. From the correlation, there was a significant relationship between educational backgrounds, religious affiliation on longevity. Based on the finding of the study, it is recommended among others that WHO, and UNDESA should update their finding on life expectancy in Nigeria for proper documentation, and intensive health education should be carried out in the area to improve the awareness on best health practices among elderly persons in the area to enhance their longevity.

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Title : Effect of Oxidation on the Quality of Biodiesel Produced from Nigerian Grown Jatropha Curcas

Authors : Kabiru Muazu, Bashir Aliyu Abba, Hawawu Salami

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Abstract :

A lot of research work has proven that Nigerian Jatropha curcas is a potential feedstock for biodiesel production. However, the major drawback is its susceptibility to oxidation due to the presence of unsaturated fatty acids in the parent oil which adversely affects the quality of the biodiesel produced. This work investigated the effect of the oxidation on the quality of the biodiesel produced. Two important oxidation parameters: the acid value and the induction period were measured and correlated with biodiesel quality indices such as viscosity and cetane number. The results show that the Nigerian Jatropha curcas biodiesel (NJCB) fails to meet the minimum oxidation stability limit (IP of 6 hours) without antioxidant. Blending with petro-diesel as well as the addition of antioxidants leads to a composition having efficient and improved oxidation stability. The viscosity of all the samples are found to increase during the 24 weeks period of storage indicating an increase in the formation of oxidized products which lead to the formation of sediments and gum. The slight increase in the cetane number of the pure biodiesel and its blends can be attributed to the gradual saturation of the unsaturated methyl esters which are being oxidized into aldehydes and carboxylic acids.

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