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Volume 6 Issue 4

S.No. Title & Authors Page No View
1

Title : Unregulated Urbanization and Challenge of Environmental Security in Africa

Authors : Anthony I. Osawe, Magnus O. Ojeifo

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In Africa, unregulated urbanization is associated with variety of policy issues spanning demographic, economic, and environmental concerns occurring in the context of massive rural-urban migration and rapid urbanization. These lead to structural weaknesses and even breaking points in cities that are not adequately prepared for the uncontrolled influx of rural populations seeking to improve their lives. The growing consensus is that this situation poses one of the major threats to environmental security in the developing world, and that they impact the poor and therefore the most food insecure to the greatest extent. Urbanization is one of the most significant trends in Africa at present, with rural populations migrating at unprecedented rates to urban hubs in search of employment and economic growth. The effect of this includes, among others, the growing of slums, pressure on infrastructure and the social problems, including security that accompany unemployment in an urban setting. Failing to address them adequately, could see emerging markets fall into the trap of replacing rural underdevelopment with urban underdevelopment - a destructive scenario that betrays the enormous potential that is so apparent on the African continent. The challenge of environmental security resonates from energy and climate security, to water and health security. These may affect the total well being of human and its society by making them not to fully access the expected benefits of urban society and may thus hinder its human security. The underlining goal of the concepts of Environmental security is aligned towards achieving sustainable development.

01-10
2

Title : Relationship between Fosterage and Attachment Styles among Early Childhood Education Pupils in Kaduna Metropolis, Nigeria

Authors : Dr. Jummai Garba

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The study investigated the relationship between fosterage and attachment styles of pupils in early childhood education in Kaduna metropolis, Nigeria. The study had three objectives; three hypotheses were formulated and tested. The population for the study was 451 early childhood education pupils out of which 83 pupils were studied; 39 males (47%) while 44 females (53 %). Correlation survey was employed in the conduct of the research. The instruments used in collecting data were parenting practices and child attachment style checklists. The attachment style checklist was administered by the research assistants on the sampled pupils while the parenting practices checklist was administered to the parents of the sampled pupils.  Pearson Product Moment Correlation Coefficient (PPMC) was the statistical tool used to analyze the data collected. The results showed no significant correlation between fosterage and secure attachment style (p =.126) but significant correlations existed between fosterage and ambivalent attachment style (p =.012) and fosterage and avoidant attachment style (p = .015). Based on the findings of this study, it was recommended that parents and caregivers should avoid fosterage so that the child grows up in secure environment and develop secure attachment style.

11-20
3

Title : Noise Survey of the University of Port Harcourt Teaching Hospital

Authors : Nte F.U, Gbarato O.L.

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Noise survey of the University of Port Harcourt Teaching Hospital “A”, “B” = class room environment and “C” = Hostel environment of the University of Port Harcourt was carried. The study permit by the ethics committees was obtained and covers noise evaluation of the teaching hospital environment. The noise ranged 52 dBA around the wards, 72 dBA around the Motor Park and 112dBA at generator yard of the utility unit. Noise level around the class rooms “B” ranged 57 dBA while lectures are on and 75 dBA when lectures are over, depending on the hall size. The University hostel areas “C” had noise level of 55 dBA during examination week and 78 dBA during the student union week due to games, politics and cultural activities with high electronic sound blast. The statistical analyses of the minimum and maximum range is reflected in tables1, 2, 3 which shows a very high variability between the minimum A and maximum A while maximum B and maximum C shows a great correlation.  A  participatory  interphase   shows that electronic, radio and television noise, including telephone calls and  crowed of visitors can affect the next inmate psychologically and health wise beyond the  sound intensity because of  compact bed spaced despite visiting hours,  the hostels and  open wards needs health educators while  side room- experience is  different  and effectively  coordinated in favour of the private hospitals.

21-24
4

Title : Evidential Imperatives in Election Petitions in Nigeria

Authors : E.Q. Okolie Esq

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Election Petition is the only viable and reorganized alternative open to any person or party dissatisfied with the conduct of an election under our laws to ventilate his or her grievances. Over the years, litigants/petitioners have continued to patronize the election petition tribunals/courts with minimal or no success as most of the petitions ended up being thrown out for non-compliance with the applicable electoral legislations or want of proof. The objective of this paper is to examine why it is a near impossibility to prove election petitions anchored on some grounds and also to proffer away out. The paper also advocates by way of recommendation that the electoral umpire (INEC) and judges should uphold substantial justice over and above technicalities; further, the requirement of proof of non-compliance should be made optional or a mid-course approach be adopted in proof of corrupt practices instead of proof beyond reasonable doubt in cases of allegations that have criminal undertone as currently practiced in Nigeria. It is hoped that by the mid-course approach with respect to proof of corrupt practices, the mere fact that it can be established that an election is riddled with corrupt practices, should be sufficient to void such an election without necessarily proving substantial non-compliance with the relevant provisions of the Electoral Act and other laws on that behalf; and without also necessarily establishing the link between the Respondent and the person(s) who carried out the alleged corrupt practices, et cetera.

25-34
5

Title : Reconceptualizing Students Choice of University in Higher Education Management: Scale Development

Authors : Anyasi Amaka Ifeyinwa, Ogunnaike Olaleke Oluseye, Oloruntoba Anuoluwapo Maria, Folorunsho Olamide, Dinyain Tamarapreye, Dibia Ifeanyichukwu Peter

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Developing on the theory of planned behavior, this paper provides a reconceptualization of student choice of university. The intent of the survey is to spot out elements that affect students’ choices of university.  A quantitative analysis approach was adapted in providing answers to the study’s objective. A survey was carried out on 50 respondents comprising of both undergraduate and postgraduate students cutting across all colleges in a university situated in Ogun state, Nigeria. The sample size was picked using a random stratified sampling approach. All 50 questionnaires were completed and used for factor analysis. Findings from the survey show that elements such as where the institution is located, qualification of faculty, content of programs, prestige of university, standard of facilities at the university, employment rate for university graduates and advertising strategies strongly influence student’s choice of university.

35-40
6

Title : Reconceptualizing Service Profit Chain in Church Management: Scale Development Approach

Authors : Obidinma Ogechi Gloria, Ogunnaike Olaleke Oluseye, Odejobi Titilope Maria, Iwara Nancy Charles

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This paper portrays a knowledge-based point of view to acknowledge the relevance of service profit chain in churches, and how it compels a church to be diverse via workers internal service quality such as workers satisfaction and external service quality such as customer satisfaction amongst others. It exploited a multistage growth measure procedures where review questionnaires were shared to 50 participants which includes members and workers of a Faith-based Church. The conclusion of the confirmatory and exploratory factor examination displays the multi-stage type of service profit chain in churches. Eight sections were approved which consists- Internal service quality, workers satisfaction, workers retention, workers productivity, members loyalty, members satisfaction, revenue growth and productivity. This paper proposes an evidence of reliability and validity of the measures used which implies fresh tactic to verify service profit chain in churches. Conclusions show that churches who participate in service profit chain are recognized to be creative and use their information base as a winning platform to stimulate means to increase and achieve their objectives.

41-48
7

Title : Proximate and Mineral Composition of Locally Sourced Suya Spices Sold In Agege Area of Lagos State

Authors : T.O. Akinola, O.O. Fatunmibi, O.T. Alake, A.E. Asagbra, Onawola O.O.

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Suya spices are seasonings added to suya (Barbeque meat) and are becoming famous as compliments to meals such as fries and soups. Suya spice is consumed majorly in the northern part of Nigeria and by a few southerners. This study is aimed at analyzing the proximate and mineral compositions of suya spice obtained within Agege metropolis with respect to ingredients, processing, handling and storage respectively. Suya spice samples were obtained from Oko oba, Mangoro, Abule egba, Oniwaya and Pen cinema areas within Agege and from Ikeja as the control sample. The proximate analyses of the suya spices were determined by adopting the methods as described by the Association of Official Analytical Chemists (AOAC) and Pearson’s Chemical Analysis of Food. Results of proximate analyses showed significant differences in most of the parameters. Ash content was observed to be highest in Oniwaya sample (4.65±0.42), crude fibre was highest in the Ikeja sample (14.91±0.02), fat content was highest in Abule egba sample (14.04±0.05), protein content was highest in Pen cinema sample (10.29±0.09), carbohydrate was highest in Mangoro sample and Energy value was highest in mangoro sample (56.34±0.73) respectively, while moisture content was least in Pen cinema sample (6.09±0.06). Results of the mineral composition revealed sodium content to be highest in the Ikeja sample (13.75±0.02), potassium was highest in Oko oba sample (56.70±0.01), iron was highest in Mangoro sample 1.58±0.01, calcium was highest in Abule egba (21.46±0.26) and Oko oba samples (21.46±0.01) respectively,while magnesium (9.59±0.012) and copper (1.59±0.01) were observed to be highest both in Abule egba sample respectively. The lead content was reported to be less than 0.1ppm in all samples. As such, suya spices which are made from natural ingredients and possessing high nutritive values may be recommended as a natural flavour enhancer in foods and sauces.

49-54
8

Title : Identification of Critical Control Points in Some Nigerian Fermented Foods and Seasonings

Authors : Asagbra A. E., Onawola O. O., Okeagu M.O.

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Fermented foods constitute a significant component of African diets, some as staple foods while others include weaning foods and condiments. These foods are produced at house hold level and sent to relations abroad, whereas some are produced semi-commercially. In all this, hygiene and packaging are of a major concern. The aim of the study is to identify possible hazards and critical control points (CCPs) in the production of some Nigerian fermented dietary foods in order to help reduce risks to health as a result of the consumption of these foods, as these foods are exported to the diaspora. Three processors from Ijebu town Ogun state in Nigeria were visited and observed on the traditional processing of garri, iru and ogiri respectively. Soy-ogi is a fermented technological product of the Federal Institute of Industrial Research (FIIRO). Potential hazards and critical control points at each step of the process were each identified by the use of a decision tree. In all cases, the major hazards identified were biological. All the raw material, fermentation and drying steps were identified as CCPs. Hazard Analysis Critical Control Points (HACCP) was carried out to teach small and medium scale entrepreneurs who acquire the technology of producing these fermented foods. Prerequisite programmes (environmental sanitation and personal hygiene) are suggested as strategies to improve the safety of these traditional fermented foods and condiments.

 

55-60
9

Title : Public Policy and Constitutionalism in Nigeria

Authors : Aborisade Olasunkanmi

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The work focuses on public policy issues and the role of constitutionalism in Nigeria. Many policies have been made in Nigeria on different issues but we discovered that many hardly see the light of the day. The heroine effect of policy failure in Nigeria have always been on the toiling masses. The point of my argument is that Nigeria has at different times made and promulgate many constitutions right from independent in 1960. The 1999 Constitution of Federal Republic of Nigeria to some extent may be regarded as constitution with constitutionalism, if this is the case then, an adherence to the dictate of the constitution can solved the problem of fail public policy in Nigeria. The country is not bereaved of public policies: the problem is most of them ‘ended in fiasco’. In fact, some scholars linked policy failure in Nigeria to the inability of the government to identify the needs of its citizens before initiating the policies. A close look at the statement indicates that the inability of any government to successfully manage its policy process, encounters grave challenges of development. The present work therefore will examine the possibility of exploring the concept of constitutionalism and it attendant advantage as a way of enhancing the coherent and effective implementation of public policy in Nigeria.

61-66
10

Title : Participation in Practice: A comparative Evaluation of Community Members’ Level of Involvement in Management of Rural and Urban Forests in Kenya

Authors : Victor K. Boiyo, Jane M. Mutune, James K. Kiemo

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Participatory system of governance entails involvement of stakeholders in the process of policy formulation, implementation and decision making. Studies done on the subject of participation in forest management has considered participation in general without going into the details of level of participation and decision making. Furthermore, this studies have had a bias on participation in rural set up and thus there is little that has been documented on participation in the context of urban forests. This study was conducted to establish the level of CFA members’ participation and decision making in rural forests as compared to urban forests. Kiptuget Forest in Baringo County and Ngong Road Forest in Nairobi City County were purposefully selected to represent rural and urban forests respectively. The study employed both primary data collected using questionnaires and key informants interviews and secondary data collected from review of PFM technical reports, articles, and publications. Data was analyzed using percentages, statistical measures of central tendencies, tabulations, frequencies and Analysis of Variance (ANOVA).The study revealed that that NRFA had more regular and well attended meeting compared to KICOFA where meetings were only held when necessary. It was further established that majority of the members of NRFA (41.5%) were engaged at a consultative level of decision making while majority of members of KICOFA (65.4%) were involved at an informative level of decision making. It was also noted that due to its better financial capacity, NRFA had managed to hire scouts to help in monitoring and enforcement of forest regulations. The study recommends that the legislature should work on reviewing the legal framework and regulations governing PFM implementation to grant more decision making powers to the CFA,  the CFAs and KFS should work together to build the capacity of CFAs for them to effectively participate in co management of the forest.

67-70
11

Title : Hydro-Geoelectric Study of Smoking Hills Golf Resort, Ilara-Mokin Southwestern Nigeria

Authors : Adeoye-Oladapo Oluwakemi Olanike

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Hydro-geoelectric study has been undertaken within the Smoking Hills Golf Resort Ilara-Mokin, Ondo State. The golf resort is situated on the Crystalline Basement Complex rocks of Southwestern Nigeria with the lithology consisting of variably migmatized Biotite-Hornblende-Gneiss with intercalated Amphibolite and Quartzite. The study involved the Direct Current Electrical Resistivity method of geophysical prospecting. The field technique adopted is the vertical electrical sounding (VES) utilizing the Schlumberger configuration. Twenty five (25) VES stations were occupied within the study area. The sounding curve types obtained from the field data are KH, H, HKH, KQ, AK, KQH, AKQ, K and KHK. The sounding data presented a lithologic sequence consisting of the topsoil, thick weathered basement, partially weathered/fractured basement and the fresh bedrock. The overburden materials within the golf resort which are generally in excess thickness of 21.8 m with maximum thickness of 120.9 m constitute the main aquifer units with possibility of fairly adequate yield at twenty one VES locations. A combination of overburden materials and the partially weathered/fractured basement constitute aquifer units with fairly adequate yield at three VES locations while the partially weathered/fractured basement constitutes the main aquifer unit at one VES point. The groundwater potential of Smoking Hills Golf Resort is of low ranking beneath two VES locations (VES 15 and VES 20) and of medium ranking beneath the remaining twenty three (23) VES locations.

71-81
12

Title : A Historic-Phenomenological Look at the New Religious Movements (NRMs) in Nigeria

Authors : ABOH Fidelis Isomkwo, OKOM Emmanuel Njor

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The axiomatic truth that religion is an inalienable expression of the human spirit plays out the world over in the phenomenal display of this spiritual expression in what is today regarded as the New Religious Movements (NRMs). From the East to the West, North to the South, people everywhere around the globe belong to one religious movement or the other in order to satisfy this spiritual quest. This affirmation of religion finds its expression in the membership of the NRMs. The New Religious Movements are multifarious and keep cleaving by the minute into many more movements, like the human zygote. This is quite sociologically explainable, in the sense that human social interaction is usually bound to produce conflict among adherents that is capable of these cleavages. This is a social problem that is worthy of investigation. Therefore, using the desktop research method, the paper looked at this expression of region globally, classifying them into Non-Christian NRMs and Christian NRMs. It also looked at the historical development of Christian NRMs in Nigeria, their problems and proffered solutions on the way towards better Christian practices.

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13

Title : Self-Breast Examination among Female Medical Students of Abia State University, Uturu, Nigeria

Authors : Eleweke Ndukauba, Otuka Olufumi Adebimpe Ijeoma, Ekpemo Samuel Chidi, Otuka Uzochukwu

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Self-breast examination, (SBE) is a technique which allows an individual to examine his/her breast for any visual or palpable changes which could be an indicator of a breast disease. We embarked on this project to find the level of awareness and practice of SBE among female medical undergraduate students of Abia State University Uturu, (ABSU), Abia State, South East Nigeria.

This was a questionnaire based study on female medical students of ABSU. After ethical clearance, questionnaires were administered to consenting female medical students. Data was collected and analyzed using SPSS software programme version 21.

 Out of the 419 questionnaires distributed, there were 384(92%) respondents. Of these, 378(98.4%) have heard about SBE, while 6(1.60%) have not. The major sources of information on SBE were medical and health education in 131(34.1%), the media in 126(32.8%) and friends in 112(29.2%) respondents. Three hundred and sixteen (82.3%) of the respondents knew how to perform SBE, while 68(17.7%) did not know. Fifty three (13.8%) performed SBE monthly. Health education and media are the major sources of information on SBE.

88-90
14

Title : Electricity Supply and Performance of Small and Medium Enterprises in Nigeria: Assessing Selected Firms in North-Western States

Authors : Abubakar Sabo, Olusegun Kazeem Lekan

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The Paper examines the effect of controlling firm characteristics in the energy-business growth relationships. Consistent with this objective, the paper posit that electricity supply is significantly related to SMEs growth in Nigeria. The paper also employed a quantitative methodology. Data were collected through a self-administered survey questionnaire. The questionnaire was adopted from a previous validated survey measuring electricity supply in Nigerian SMEs. The target population consisted of SMEs operating in the city of Kano, Katsina and Jigawa state, Nigeria. Multi-stage sampling was applied to collected data from three stratums i.e manufacturing, hotel & restaurant and wholesale & retail sector SMEs. In the first stage, the SMEs were purposively selected; the next stage involved stratified sampling while SMEs were randomly selected in the third stage. A total of 322 sampled SMEs were invited to participate in the survey. Of these firms 197 SMEs (61 percent response rate) accepted the invitation to fill out the survey questionnaire. Reliability of the measurement model is tested using Chronbach Alpha while multiple linear regression model is incorporated to test the hypothesis. The study found that, relationship exists between SMEs growth, electricity supply and firm characteristics (firm age, size and leverage). Specifically, the relationship is positively strong between SMEs growth, electricity supply and firm age whereas both firm size and leverage had a similar less relationships. On the basis of these empirical findings, the paper recommends that there is an an urgent need to improve electricity supply to SMEs in order to accelerate the growth of enterprises and by extension the economy.

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15

Title : Strategic Management Practices and Profitability of Small and Medium Enterprises in Nigeria: A Moderating Effect Assessment

Authors : Olusegun Kazeem Lekan, Abubakar Sabo

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Concerted efforts to enhance firm profitability in today’s present hypercompetitive business environment have seen the emergence of strategic management practices (SMP). As a consequence, a considerable amount of research attention has been paid to investigating the relationships of firm profitability to the SMP. Nevertheless, little is known about the moderating role of strategic capabilities to the relationships. Thus, the paper is poised to fill this gap. Consistent with this objective, we propose that SMP is significantly related to small and medium enterprises (SMEs) profitability in Nigeria. Building from the dynamic capabilities theory, we further suggest that strategic capabilities moderate the relationships between SMP and SMEs profitability in the study area. We test these arguments using a cross-sectional survey data collected through mailed questionnaire administered to eighty-seven (87) sample SMEs operating in the financial intermediation sector selected by two stage sampling techniques: purposive sampling and simple random sampling methods. Reliability of the measurement model is tested using Chronbach Alpha while multiple linear regression model is incorporated to test the hypotheses. Results show evidence of statistically significant relationships between SMP and SMEs profitability. It was also proved that strategic capabilities positively moderate the relationships between the variables but not significant. The link exist among the variables demonstrates the values and important of SMP and strategic capabilities in achieving profitability. Hence, it is recommended that SMP executives and entrepreneurs should always consider strategies effective to competing successfully and sustain financial goals with the global change.

100-108
16

Title : The State Of Residency Training In Nigeria – Resident Doctors’ Perspective

Authors : Dr. Nwachukwu AC

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Residency training program is a supervised specialist medical training. The duration varies from specialty to specialty with a training period of 4 to 6 years for most specialties, and 7years for Otorhinolaryngology(ENT) and Neurosurgery1. The quality and seriousness of this training also varies from centre to centre.  This study is set out to determine the state of residency in training centres across Nigeria.

METHODOLOGY: This study was carried out from 2012 to 2014 by use of semi-structured questionnaires and  telephone interviews of the presidents of association of resident doctors in 31 Teaching Hospitals, Federal Medical Centres across Nigeria. These presidents in turn interviewed various residents in their centre who are in different specialities to ascertain the state of things in those places.

RESULT:This reveals irregular intake into residency training by 71% of centres, inadequate consultants in 51.6%, lack of modern or functional  MRI in more than 90%  and CT scan in  greater than 70% of centres. 54.3% of resident doctors are not getting adequate hands on experience.

CONCLUSION:Even though residency training started about 54years ago, the quality of training is not yet adequate as perceived by the trainees themselves. There is need to improve on equipment procurement, trainers employment and quality of supervision of residents.

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