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Volume 13 Issue 2

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Title : Crop Production Potentials and Strategic Constraints of Gedeb District, Gedeo Zone, SNNPR, Ethiopia

Authors : Tizazu Toma , Merkineh Mogiso

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Abstract :

Gedeb district is known for its crop production in Gedeo zone of SNNPRS. The widely cultivated crop types, such as cereals, pulses, coffee and tea spice, among others were manifestations of crop potential of this district although various biological, socio-economic and institutional factors were retaining back development of the sector. Therefore, this study was conducted to identify and document the recurrent production potential and constraints of crop production so as to base research and development works on the output. To achieve these objectives, checklists were prepared; sample Kebeles, focus group discussion (FGD) participants and key informants were purposively selected, interviewed and discussions were made. Secondary data were collected from districts and selected Kebeles. The data collected were analyzed using descriptive statistics and the result indicated that potentiality for production of crops such as maize, food barley, wheat, faba-bean, field-pea, Enset, cabbage, and coffee; increasing trend of production of crops such as coffee and cabbage; increasing trend of using organic and inorganic fertilizers; use of lime to treat acid soils as an amelioration strategy, trend of using improved varieties of various crops and the likes were identified as opportunities in crop production in the district, whereas high price of inputs; disease and pests; Soil acidity; inaccurate use of seed rate and plant spacing and the likes were identified as constraints in crop production. Based on these results, research, demonstrations and trainings related to crop disease and pest management; soil acidity management; agronomic practices; trainings and demonstration of improved crop technologies; and the likes were some of the way forward recommended to be undertaken to enhance crop production and productivity in the study district.


Title : Effect of Top Dressing and Over Sowing Improved Forages on Biomass Yield and Herbaceous Composition of Grazing Land in Bursa Woreda of Sidama Region

Authors : Worku Bedeke

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Abstract :

Natural pasture productivity is reducing due to shrinkage of grazing land in highlands of crop livestock mixed production system; which is aggravated by poor management and misuse of it.  The study was conducted in bursa district of Sidamaregion in 2018 and 2019 cropping season with objective of identifying effects of urea top dressing and grass and legume over-sowing on herbaceous production, species composition improvement of grazing land. Five different treatments were applied as T1, control, .T2. over sowing phalaris grass, T3, over sowing clover, T4, top dressing 100kg of urea, T5, top dressing 50 kg urea and over-sowing phalaris. All experimental plots were fenced throughout the study period. There was statistically significant difference at (p≤0.05) among treatments in total dry matter yield; having a DMY of 2.54 tone/ha DM in T1 followed by2.32 tone/ha in T2. There was no statistically significant difference at (p≤0.05) in legume dry matter yield among treatments. Species composition was categorized in dry matter base as grass, legumes and herbs; of these grasses dominated in all experimental plots followed by legumes. Statically significant difference at (p≤0.05) was recorded in year two than year one in all parameters recorded having 1.96 tone/ha and 2.06 tone/ha DM respectively in year one and two.From the identified grass species Setariaverticellatafrequently occurred in urea applied plots whereas Trifoliumruppellianum was dominant species in non-urea applied plotsespecially in clover over-sown plots.During field observation, the participants of the grazing land day rated the Urea applied treatment as best because of the high yield of pasture. Finally it could be recommended to top dress urea for increased biomass yield.It would be better to conduct a long-term study to examine the effects of the different treatments on productivity of grazing lands, herbaceous species composition, grazing capacities, livestock and the environment.


Title : Effect of Innovative Instructional Approaches and Self Efficacy on Achievement of Chemistry among Secondary School Students in Kenya

Authors : Catherine Aurah, Wycliffe Mulavu

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The delivery of science education seems to be rapidly shifting toward pedagogy rich in experiential learning and strongly embedded in educational technology. This study investigates and extends previous research efforts on the effects of Innovative instructional approaches (5E Model, Group Discussion, Small Group Class Experiments, Teacher demonstration) and self efficacy on learning outcomes (Academic Achievement, Science Process Skills, Scientific Literacy and Science Motivation) in chemistry among high school students in Kenya. A quasi-experimental non-equivalent control group research design was adopted and this paper presents findings of a study conducted in Vihiga county in Kenya where 11 schools were selected through stratified random sampling and a sample of  550 form four students randomly selected. Quantitative data were collected using six research instruments (1) Achievement test (a pre-test (PrT), and a post-test (PoT)), (2) a 22-item self-report science self-efficacy scale (SSES), 3) a10-item scientific literacy assessment test (SLAT), (4) a 20-minute practical science process skills Achievement test (SPSAT), (5) a science Motivation Questionnaire (SMQ). Data were analyzed using Factorial MANOVA at α = .05. Results suggest that the use of innovative instructional approaches leads to favourable learning outcomes with 5E learning cycle yielding highest scores on the learning outcomes. These findings have implications for science educators, specifically teachers of chemistry and for policy.


Title : Specificity of Cultural and Molecular Diagnosis for Identification of Mycoplasma Hominis

Authors : Chiamaka P. Chukwuka, Felix E. Emele, Nneka R. Agbakoba, Dorothy A. Ezeagwuna, Charlotte B. Oguejiofor

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Abstract :

A.       Background

Mycoplasma hominis is increasingly being associated with tubal factor infertility; increased risk of pregnancy complications, such as premature membrane rupture, vaginitis and preterm birth. The study was carried out to test the specificity of culture and molecular diagnosis for identification of M. hominis.

B.       Methods:

A cross sectional study was conducted and demographic variables collected using a structured questionnaire. High vaginal swab (HVS) samples were collected from 200 women (100 from women presenting with infertility and 100 from pregnant women) and cultured for Mycoplasma hominis. Identification of organism was based on laboratory cultural characteristics of M. hominis and Polymerase Chain Reaction (PCR) of the presumptively identified isolates using 16S target gene.

C.       Result:

Of the 200 HVS samples analyzed for M. hominis by laboratory culture method, 35 samples (19 from infertile) and (16 from pregnant women) were positive. Of the 35 presumptive isolates of M. hominis, 20 isolates (9 from infertile) and (11 from pregnant) were confirmed M. hominis by the PCR of the 16SrRNAtarget gene specific to M. hominis.

D.       Conclusion:

There is need for modification of culture medium used in the isolation of M. hominis to curb the proliferation of other urogenital organisms in medium specific to M. hominis. However, basing diagnosis only on PCR equally poses a challenge due to the high genetic variability within the specie. Hence, combination of methods appears to be a plausible solution to minimize erroneous results.


Title : Assessment of Broadcast Media Organisational Effectiveness Factors’ Contribution to Communal Conflict Management in Oyo and Lagos States, Nigeria

Authors : Sanni Omolade O

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In any conflict situation, timely information dissemination withapt programme content is very influential in enhancing conflict management and the effectiveness ofbroadcast media is therefore very vital to communal conflicts management. The study is premised on Social responsibility theory and Reception theory. The study adopted descriptive design with survey method, 958 community representatives in Oyo and Lagos states were interviewed using self-administered questionnaire complemented with Focus Group Discussion (FGD). The study revealed that Timing of the Programmes, Programme Content and Audience Reach have significant relative contributions to management of communal conflict while Coverage Area, Reception, Language and Frequency of Programing have no significant contributions to management of communal conflict. The study revealed  the joint contribution of the seven broadcast media organizational effectiveness factors which  accounted for 26.8% of the variance which is shown to be significant (F(7, 950) = 49.745; P<0.05) to the management of communal conflict. It was therefore recommended that adequate steps should be taken by management of the broadcast stations to frequently air timely news and programmes that have appropriate contents in languages the community members understand in relation to crisis situation, that can help the community members to have better understanding of situation of things around them thereby promoting dialogue and peace among conflicting parties.